of 2000 to 2013 Oral Sex What is the Risk?

Safe sex from STDsThey are extremely dangerous and can cause problems ranging from infertility in women and lack of erection in men to AIDS. These are STDs - sexually transmitted diseases. In this guide you will learn more about each of them and how to prevent them BY PATRÍCIA BOCCIAWhen AIDS entered the scene in the early 80s, it soon became the most dangerous and deadly infectious disease. At the time, it was believed that the virus HIV it spread only through sexual intercourse between homosexuals and injecting drug users. And AIDS became part of the list of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Today, the data is frightening: about 40 million people are infected worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). And the risk group is no longer restricted to homosexuals, injecting drug users and blood recipients. That is, anyone who does not use a condom during sexual intercourse is in danger of becoming infected. Proof of this is the growing number of married, monogamous women who are HIV positive. But if the statistics increasingly include more people who consider themselves out of danger, what about other STDs, which have existed for centuries? The truth is that these days little importance is attached to them. Hardly anyone today thinks about protecting themselves from syphilis and gonorrhea. Only, believe me, STDs affect more than 340 million people worldwide. WHO points out that while HIV contaminates about one million a year, Syphilis attacks three and a half million; Gonorrhea 25 million; genital papillomavirus (HPV), 30 million and chlamydia 120 million. And what is more important: unlike AIDS, these diseases can be cured and completely controlled. But the numbers reveal: despite being well informed, people, including young people, are relaxing more and more, as if they could never be the next victim.Aids433 thousand cases have already been identified in the countryDEFINITIONThe acronym stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Syndrome is the association of several symptoms that make it possible to identify a disease. Immunodeficiency is the important weakening of the immune system. Acquired because it was contracted. It is caused by the HIV virus, a retrovirus that attacks the immune system. PHASES In the first stage the person is HIV positive, but has no symptoms. In the intermediate phase, swollen nodes appear, diarrhea, weight loss, cough, muscle pain, fever and skin spots. In the most serious, there are the calls opportunistic diseases, such as turboculosis and herpes, and infections that undermine the immune system. Without treatment, 80% of those infected reach the final stage of the disease. DIAGNOSIS Two blood tests confirm the disease. Anti-HIV serology and cell count CD4. In the first, there is the presence of antibodies against HIV. If so, the body has been contaminated. In the second, CD4 cells are counted. When in very low numbers, the picture of AIDS is considered serious. The negative result even indicates that the person does not have detectable AIDS virus antibodies on examination. If there is exposure to the risk of the AIDS virus, the HIV test should be repeated after 6 months (of course avoiding exposure to risks during this period). This is the time it takes the body to make antibodies after infection. A positive result indicates that a person is infected with HIV and can pass it on to others, but that does not mean they have AIDS. HOW YOU GET IT when HIV comes in direct contact with blood, sperm or vaginal secretions. where the virus enters. Anal sex is the most risky because the mucous membranes of the anus and rectum are very fragile. Oral sex is at risk if there is ejaculation in the partner's mouth or the woman is menstruating and the partner has a mouth sore. The kiss on the mouth only poses a risk if there is bleeding of teeth or gums. But to date no cases of kiss transmission have been scientifically proven. Needles, syringes, and sharp instruments such as manicure pliers need to be individual or well-sterilized. A single drop of blood that enters the skin is sufficient to cause AIDS. the replicas of HIV. Single antiviral therapy is recommended for up to one year. Then it loses its effectiveness. AZT, ddl and ddc are the most commonly used and researched drugs as well. Combination therapy has a clear objective: to improve the overall effectiveness of treatment at any stage of the disease. Some doctors also recommend the use of these drugs by asymptomatic HIV-positive people who have a decrease in body defenses. The cocktail does not end there, experts in parallel prescribe substances such as those that have the role of inhibiting an enzyme produced by the virus and primarily responsible for its multiplication. In addition, there is another powerful weapon: the immunomodulators. They have the function of rebuilding or stimulating the body's defense system. VACINASE Currently over twenty experimental HIV vaccines are under study. Some are preventive for uninfected people to protect them if they are exposed to the virus. Others are therapeutic to interrupt the disease process. But there are obstacles: the first is that AIDS is only transmitted between humans. Then it is difficult to continue the initial research. Another problem is the large latency phase of HIV, because the person may be asymptomatic for more than ten years, which makes the period of evaluation of vaccines longer. Another factor that also hinders is the HIV diversity, which varies genetically by geographic region. And finally a more serious problem: testing the vaccine in healthy people. Gonorrhea There are 1 1.5 million cases of the disease in the country DEFINITION Also called blenorrhagia, the disease is caused by the bacterium Gonococco. It causes infection of the urethra - the urine channel - as well as the cervix. It was formerly known as warming. The weird name has to do with the classic symptom of the problem: burning in the urine canal and painful urination. In females, another classic sign of the disease is yellowish discharge. If the infection is not treated correctly it leads to sterility in 60% of cases. This is because it inflames the fallopian tubes and the uterine cavity. HOW TO PEGAT All sexual modalities, including oral and anal. The risk of sexual transmission is 90%. Usually, five days after contamination, the disease appears. There are people (almost 40% of cases) who have the bacteria and no sign of the disease. These individuals may transmit the animal in the same way. HOW IT TREATS Doctors may indicate one of several antibiotic options. The treatment lasts about 10 to 15 days. But the symptoms disappear within 24 hours. Therefore doctors warn patients not to abandon the medicines. Otherwise, the disease improves, gives a respite and may return with force majeure. Another guideline is that the partner also goes through tests to see if he or she is infected, even if he or she has no symptoms.HPThere are 685 thousand cases of the disease in Brazil rooster crest or condyloma acuminata) in the vagina, vulva, cervix, anus, penis head and mucosa of the mouth. There are more than 100 HPV types. Therefore, some people have various manifestations, while others have no symptoms. Such wounds can hurt and itch or not. HOW TO GET IT Sex is the primary form of HPV transmission. But doctors do not rule out the possibility through contact with sheets, underwear, contaminated gynecological appliances, public toilets, or hotel and motor bathtubs.
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is that they have not been properly disinfected. This is because, some types of HPV have life long out of the body. A study conducted at 2003 at the University of California, United States, detected HPV in 20% of 467 young virgins who participated in the survey. The work indicates that HPV can actually survive in different locations and contaminate by simple contact with the skin. Women and men who have sex without using condoms are the virus's favorite targets. It is also worth remembering that the disease is associated with cervical, penile and anus cancer: 3% of infected people are at risk of developing cancer in these regions. Another recent study in the United States showed that 95 % of women with cervical cancer had the virus. HOW IT TREATMENT Treatment is aimed at removing the lesion and not the virus. Doctors use different methods of destruction of injured tissues: electric scalpel, laser, ice and acids. Once the warts or micro-wounds are eliminated, the virus is removed together. In addition to treatment are indicated: ● Maintain local hygiene ● Do not scratch the affected region to not spread the disease ● Never try home remedies ● Treat the partner too.Herpes is estimated to have 640 thousand cases of the disease in Brazil DEFINITION Herpes is a disease caused by two types of virus: Herpes simplex virus 1 and Herpes simplex virus-2. The former is more associated with oral lesions (on the lips). The second is genital lesions (vagina, anus, cervix and penis). But that does not mean that anyone with genital herpes is exclusively HSV-2. There may be both types of viruses in the body. After about 10 days of contamination, small blisters appear on the genitals or mouth that itch a lot. They rupture to painful wounds that disappear spontaneously within ten days. HOW TO GET IT The most common age group for HSV infection is between 20 and 29 years between sexually active people of both sexes. But transmission can also occur through nonsexual pathways, such as kissing and direct contact with a carrier's wound. The virus stays in the body forever, and when the body's defenses decrease, the symptoms reappear. Both genital and labial herpes occur more frequently in the summer season, due to the probable drop in immunity caused by ultraviolet rays. Other situations that can cause the virus to relapse are menstruation, stress, and respiratory infections. HOW IT TREATS Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment that ends the virus. What can be achieved is to reduce, by means of medical advice, the period of manifestation of the lesions. Chlamydia or venereal lymphogranuloma is estimated to have more than 1 million and 800 thousand cases of the disease in the country DEFINITION Disease caused by a bacterium - a Chlamydia trachomatis. It is incubated in the body for three to 30 days. After that, minor skin wounds appear on the genitalia that remain for about six weeks. Then a groin water appears that can rupture and cause an abscess on the spot. In women the vulva increases in volume. In advanced states, in both males and females, blood is present in the stool because bacteria enter the bloodstream and reach the intestines. HOW TO GET ONLY Sexually (during oral sex as well) in either stages of the disease, including the incubation period. HOW IT WORKS Doctors prescribe antibiotics that should be taken for about ten days. It is also important to drain the waters to clear the purulent area. At the wound site doctors inject drugs that act as antiseptics to cleanse the region well. Syphilis has about 900 1,000 cases of the disease in the country DEFINITION This is an STD caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Syphilis mainly affects young people between 15 and 24 years and from all walks of life. Remember that the human body has no defenses against Treponema, so any contact with a carrier of the disease means being infected. HOW TO GET GIVEN BY SEX, DIRECT CONTACT WITH OPEN INJURIES, BLOOD TRANSFUSION AND PLACENTA . Hard cancer is the first stage of syphilis. It is a lesion with a hardened base, with the presence of clear and liquid secretion that can occur in the large lips, vagina, clitoris, perineum and cervix in women and in the glans and foreskin in men. The lesion arises in the genitals from 10 to 30 days after contagion. Does not hurt, does not itch, does not burn and has no smell. This wound disappears on its own after approximately 10 days. After a few weeks reddish patches appear on the palms and soles, which disappear within a matter of weeks. Syphilis plunges into deep silence that can last for years, but then comes back in full force and can cause death. It is important to remember that syphilis can be passed in any of the stages. HOW IT IS DONE The most important drug is penicillin, which should only be given under medical advice. For people allergic to this substance, there are other options your doctor may indicate. After about five days all symptoms subside, but treatment should be continued for at least six months until all bacteria are cleared. Candidias are believed to have at least 3 / 4 of women having or will have an episode of candidiasis in life. DEFINITION Infection Caused by fungus. In 90% of cases occurs due to Candida albicans. Although it is related to STDs Candida usually exists in the vagina and lives in harmony with other various types of microbes. Under certain circumstances this balance is broken and the fungi proliferate beyond normal, causing infection and becoming transmissible. HOW TO GET IT When fungi become infectious, they are transmitted sexually through the use of contaminated towels and soaps. But the disease is also associated with problems such as diabetes, stress, surgery, leukemias and other pathologies that weaken the immune system and unbalance the coexistence of fungi. In the case of women, the infection presents with a curdled-like discharge, as well as intense itching, redness in the vagina and vulva, and burning urination. At the time of menstruation, the symptoms get much worse and the sexual act becomes painful. If not treated correctly candidiasis becomes chronic. When a man becomes infected, an inflammation arises that causes swelling in the head of the penis and in the foreskin (skin that covers the glans). There is also redness and intense itching. Many men have no symptoms but are contaminated because the fungi are highly transmissible. HOW TO TREATE There are various oral and topical medications that can be used, but always under medical advice. The treatment lasts between ten and 20 days. When a woman or a man has a steady partner, treatment is done for both of them to prevent reinfection.20 Ways to Avoid Sexually Transmitted Diseases IN WOMEN 1. Use condoms in all kinds of sexual relations. 2. Decrease the number of partners. 3. Do not allow penetration if the vagina or anus is not well lubricated. 4. Maintain proper hygiene of the vagina and anus. 5. Self-examine the vagina and vulva monthly. 6. Convincing the steady partner to also examine themselves. 7. Not having contact with other people's wounds and warts. 8. Wear cotton underwear that allows the vagina area to be airy. 9. Do not stay long with damp beach, pool or gym clothes. 10. Do not borrow towels, underwear and sheets. 11. Visit the gynecologist every six months. 12. Do the pap smear every six months. 13. Convince the partner to visit a urologist regularly. 14. Convince the partner to
not abandon treatment of a sexually transmitted disease. 15. Consult a gynecologist as soon as any type of discharge appears in the vagina. 16. Consult the gynecologist whenever there is discharge and pain during sex. 17. Intensify routine gynecological examinations if you are pregnant, are a smoker, are on birth control pills or have an intrauterine device (IUD). 18. Taking antioxidant vitamins helps the immune system fight off microbes. 19. Maintain a healthy diet and decrease your sugar intake (bacteria love the sweet substances). 20. Avoid constant physical and emotional wear.Men 1. Use condoms in all kinds of sexual relations. 2. Decrease the number of partners. 3. Do not maintain penetration if the partner's vagina or anus is not well lubricated (the penis may have micro-lesions - doors to the microbes). 4. Maintain proper penis hygiene. 5. Do the self-examination of the penis and groin monthly. 6. Convincing the fixed partner to self-examine himself. 7. Not having contact with other people's wounds and warts. 8. Wear cotton underwear that allows the penis to become airy.9. Do not stay long with damp beach, pool or gym trunks. 10. Do not borrow towels, underwear and sheets. 11. Visit the trusted urologist or doctor every six months. 12. Take preventive serology tests for major STDs. 13. Convince the partner to visit the gynecologist regularly. 14. Convince the partner not to abandon treatment for a sexually transmitted disease. 15. Seek a urologist as soon as any kind of discharge in the penis arises. 16. Seek medical attention whenever you experience pain during sexual intercourse or erection. 17. Step up routine exams if you are a smoker or if you drink a lot of alcohol. 18. Take antioxidant vitamins that help the immune system fight off microbes. 19. Maintain a healthy diet and decrease your sugar intake (bacteria love the sweetened substances). 20. Avoid constant physical and emotional distress. SOURCES: AMAURY MENDES JR, GYNECOLOGIST AND SEXOLOGIST FOR THE BRAZILIAN SOCIETY OF HUMAN SEXUALITY STUDIES. José Bento de Souza, Gynecologist and Obstetrician at the Israeli Hospital Albert Einstein, São Paulo. JOÃO CARLOS MANTESE, GYNECOLOGIST AND DIRECTOR OF THE PEARLA BYINGTON HOSPITAL, SAO PAULO. THOMAZ BASTOS, GYNECOLOGIST

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