People living with HIV are often not subjected to testing for infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), according to American research published in the online edition of Clinical Infectious Diseases. The retrospective study examined screening practices in seven areas of care between primary and 2000 2011. The frequency of testing increased, but the practice varies considerably among sites, and in some cases individuals with high-risk behavior were often not tested for HCV.
"Testing for HCV incidence varies between sites and the improvement in the frequency of screening is also variable, underscoring the need for US-based guidelines to inform practices of HIV," the authors write.
An editorial in the same journal issue reinforces the importance of early diagnosis of HCV in people with HIV.
Many people with HIV have a high risk of infection with hepatitis C. The injection drug use is a recognized risk factor for acquiring HCV and there is also an epidemic of sexually transmitted HCV among patients with HCV gay men in some cities in Europe and USA.
American guidelines recommend that people with HIV are at high risk of HCV should be considered for annual screening for antibodies against HCV. However, the definition of high risk is unclear and practices of current tests are unknown. Due to this uncertainty, a group of researchers has developed a retrospective study involving 70.000 people with HIV who received primary care in seven sites across the United States and 2000 2011. They measured levels of screened using antibodies or HCV RNA tests as requirements for care, and for people who did not have HCV as standard, levels of subsequent tests. Factors associated with testing were also analyzed, and the researchers also examined whether elevated levels of liver enzymes (ALTs) - a possible indication of recent HCV infection - caused additional diagnostic tests.
The rates of screening in people recently enrolled for care were good with 85% undergoing tests with antibodies or HCV RNA tests within three months after you connect to a carrier. But analysis of 9000 people who do not have HCV and who remained in care for at least one year showed that only 56% had no additional screening during the monitoring of HCV.
Rates of follow-up testing varied among sites from a low of 35% to a high of 79%.
A number of risk factors and clinical characteristics were associated with testing for HCV during follow-up. Among them include reports of unprotected anal intercourse (OR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.59); amphetamine use (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.42-2.44); having a diagnosis of AIDS (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31); and a history of liver disease unrelated to HCV (OR = 3.41; 95% CI, 2.51-4.63). People who reported injecting drugs were more likely to undergo screening than gay men or heterosexual risk groups.
Surveillance in screening increased over time and between 2008 and 2011 index ranged between 0.24 screening and screening for people 0.63 year. The average number of screens per person also increased at most sites, as well as the proportion of people who underwent HCV testing at fixed periods.
"Supervision in screening for occurrence of HCV infection varies substantially between clinical sites - even among those who report high-risk features such as current use of amphetamines and anal sex with variable condom use," the authors note.
Testing for HCV in people with elevated ALTs were infrequent: only 27% of those with levels above 100 iu / l and a fifth of those with above measures 400 iu / ml underwent HCV antibody or RNA tests within a period twelve months. The rates of screening were similar when analyzes were restricted to gay men or other men who have sex with men.
"It seems that providers in the United States do not routinely use ALT as a screening test for the occurrence of HCV," comment the investigators. They conclude that guidelines are needed to screen for HCV nationwide for people with HIV, "stating who should attend this screening, how often and which screening tests should be used."
Freiman JM et al. Current practices of screening for incident hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected, HCV-uninfected individuals in primary care. Clin Infect Dis, online edition, 2014.
Reiberger T Acute hepatitis C virus infection in HIV+ MSM: should we change our screening practice? Clin Infect Dis, online edition, 2014.
Translation SAMIRA JZOriginal in English: Translation AIDSmap SAMIRA JZ
Copyscape has not detected any matches for the current post. (818 words checked)
Digiprove certificate id: P552030 - Evidence of this text and HTML content Has Been created.
I think people should be subjected to testing for HCV whenever they are detected as HIV-positive, as are already tested for tuberculosis cases in ssimilares