2014 AIDS, Dr. Anthony S. Fauci discusses the main challenges of scientific discovery HIV Cura and vaccine
Monday, July 21
A cure for HIV and a vaccine to prevent infection are essential to achieve the purpose of the HIV / AIDS pandemic, but researchers must learn more to develop any intervention, said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, MD, director of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health ((in English: National Institutes of Health, NIH)).
Fauci's remarks were delivered in 20ª Conferênccia International AIDS (AIDS 2014) in Melbourne, Australia, as part of his plenary lecture, "Critical Challenges in the Discovery of HIV: Healing and Vaccine."
"We can look forward to the world without AIDS based on the methods of treatment and prevention that we already have," Fauci said. "However, there is no doubt in my mind that we could achieve this goal more quickly and permanently, if we could offer the possibility of a curative or at least maintained / sustained virologic remission in the absence of therapy for a substantial proportion individuals infected with HIV, while at the same time increases our prevention options combination with the vaccine. "
Globally, it is estimated that 35 million people were living with HIV at the end of 2013, according to UNAIDS. The number of new HIV infections and deaths related to AIDS both fell more than a third in the last decade, largely due to the extraordinary in the treatment and prevention of HIV advances. Finding a cure for HIV infection is one of the main scientific goals, but Fauci noted that we are still in the early stage of discovery in search for healing and that the area is faced with many challenges. A major odds to determine a cure is the ability of the virus to quickly establish hidden reservoirs in the body. Characterize and quantify these reservoirs is a priority for researchers, as well as the development of biomarkers to identify them and track them.
Researchers are also pursuing a variety of strategies for the eradication of viral reservoirs, such as the activation of cells latently infected to make the virus vulnerable to antiretroviral drugs and immune responses using gene therapy to make cells of a patient refractory to HIV infection, and even transplants of stem cells. With the exception of one individual who received a transplant of stem cells from a person whose cells were refracting to infection by HIV-called "Berlin Patient" - these approaches have not been successful.
Dr. Fauci said that several lines of evidence suggest that very early treatment can prove to be extremely important, if viral eradication is to be achieved r. "If the virus is to be eradicated from individuals infected with HIV is likely to be very important to start with a smaller reservoir for infection treatment as early as possible," he said, emphasizing the case baby Mississippi - An HIV-infected child, treated within 30 their first hours of life, with continuous treatment for more 18 months and hence interrupting the use of antirretoviral therapy 27 months without evidence of virus in the blood or immune reaction against HIV until finally , the virus returned. Critical scientific questions remain unanswered in this case, including what were u immunological mechanisms other that kept the virus recovery for over two years, which led to the type of cell and body compartment which happens to virus reactivation. A new clinical trial funded by the NIH to try to answer this and other questions.
In the absence of the ability to eradicate the virus completely, improving the understanding of the reservoirs of HIV and working to maintain the sustained virological remission after discontinuation of antiretroviral treatment are the goals of research for the cure of HIV, according to Dr. Fauci.
Besides the research cure for HIV, a vaccine to prevent infection remains a priority. Although many scientific approaches to the vaccine have been tried since the late 1980.
Only one large trial, the RV144 study in Thailand demonstrated a degree of success. Researchers are making progress in understanding the immune responses that helped protect against infections in the Thai study and working to develop the next production of HIV vaccines, such as those that can induce antibodies capable of killing a wide range of HIV strains broadly neutralizing . Such antibodies are also promising for use in therapy. Additional approaches, such as, vaccines that induce T cells to kill HIV-infected cells are also being pursued.
"Researchers are making progress, but still, there is much to be learned before we have a cure or vaccine for HIV," said Dr.Facci. "We must remain focused on the development of these tools to move us closer to the end of AIDS".
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Aline Amorin translation
Note from the Editor of Soropoitivo.Org The HIV Triad Healing and Vaccine makes me think of Matrix and its triology, the triplice border, the triplice crown ... What is so enigmatic in number three.
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