What is bacterial pneumonia?
A bacterial pneumonia is a common problem for HIV-positive people, even for those who have a high CD4 count or who are responding well to HIV treatment. In an extensive study, HIV-positive adults were nearly eight times more likely to suffer from bacterial pneumonia than HIV-negative adults - although the incidence of bacterial pneumonia has declined since the introduction of a more potent combination of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in recent years.
The less severe pneumonia and bacterial infections of the airways (respiratory tract) may be caused by one of many bacteria. The Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common, followed by Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus. Rarely, bacterial pneumonia can be caused by Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, e Chlamydia pneumoniae.
The pneumonia does not only affect people with HIV
Not only HIV-positive people are more likely to develop bacterial pneumonia as a result of this infection, as they are also more likely to suffer from recurrent pneumonia. People with CD4 cell count below 100, bacterial and those whose infection has spread beyond the lungs are at an increased risk of death from bacterial pneumonia.
HIV-positive individuals who smoke tobacco use crack, cocaine, which are intravenous drug users or suffering from alcoholism or liver disease are prone to greater risk of developing bacterial pneumonia than HIV positive individuals who have no such cofactors