IDSThe first few months after contact with HIV are part of a context we call primary infection, or acute HIV infection. During this early stage of HIV infection, the human immune system is completely unprepared to fight the virus, which in the meantime reproduces at very high rates of replication!
Examination of viral load at this time of infection will always result in a very high level of copies of the virus per ml of Blood (translator's note: mine was over 3 million) - and often much higher than at any other stage of HIV infection itself. To make matters worse, in many people there is a dramatic drop in the CD4 cell count of these patients, which, in addition to exposing the person to a greater number of opportunistic diseases, still lowers the mood of the patient in question.
Diagnosing Primary HIV Infection
The primary HIV infection has much in common with the symptoms of flu or other virus without greater importance. To these symptoms often called seroconversion illness. Or acute retroviral syndrome. A number of around 90% of those who were diagnosed as HIV positive will have experienced one or more of these symptoms, usually during the first four weeks after the initial exposure to the virus: fever, rash, headache, 'a certain uneasiness, thrush or mouth ulcers, sore throat, night sweats, weight loss, with no apparent cause tiredness, swollen glands, weight loss, and some neurological symptoms such as meningitis (translator's note: I started just by meiningite that ISCMSP treated as influenza ().
These symptoms typically appear a few days or weeks after Contact with the virus (HIV) and may persist for a period of two to four weeks, although the swollen glands can last longer.
However, some people may not have symptoms of any kind, or try them seamlessly and therefore it is essential that you take the exam for HIV detection whenever you have experienced a situation where, by his own free will, or forced (the) you may have adopted some risky behavior - Remember. Health professionals do not expect you to be a saint or a saint, many of them already have, within their families, people living with HIV or AIDS.
Although many people with primary HIV infection seek medical attention for their symptoms, the diagnosis is often missed because of the similarity with other diseases.
Very few people with these symptoms go to a clinic for sexual health and seek an HIV test.
However, efforts are underway to increase HIV testing rates. Groups of people at high risk for HIV (in particular African and gay men) should be encouraged to go to a Guidance and Counseling Center Serologic -COAS- to take an HIV test when they are seen by a doctor or other health professional when they have symptoms of primary HIV infection.
During this period HIV test
After infection with HIV, it is possible for months have passed until the body to generate immune cells that can recognize infected cells producing HIV or antibodies against HIV. The period of time that it takes to produce the body's defenses against HIV is called seroconversion. Before that, any HIV test, regardless of the efficiency of it, will always result negative.
During primary HIV infection, or suspected of it, other forms of testing can be used to detect the presence of the virus (or an antigen). Such tests respond to a specific protein of HIV, although HIV when it becomes fully established the protein in the body fade to undetectable levels, and the test will be inaccurate. Tests that detect the genetic material of HIV can only identify HIV in the blood within a week of infection and continuing to operate after seroconversion.
In the UK most clinical of clinical care to sexual health will play KIT combining both tests in an attempt to get the most accurate results possible. These tests are known generally as fourth generation tests.
If you are concerned about having close or close contact with someone who may be HIV positive, DO NOT SPEND TIME, talk to your doctor, go to an AMA or equivalent in your city, such as UBS and do the test for HIV. If this contact occurred within the last 72 hours, the doctor may decide to refer you to a PPE Post Exposure Prophylaxis if the risk situation has occurred at most in the last 72 hours. You and your doctor should also discuss whether a short-term treatment, preventive HIV called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is appropriate for your situation.
- Treatment during primary infection
- In the UK, it is recommended that HIV treatment should be started when your CD4 cell count is about 350.
- However, many doctors have been interested in offering a relatively short-course (three months) after HIV treatment for people who have recently contracted HIV as a means of limiting their spread in the body and enhancing the immune system's response. Some clinical trials suggest that treatment during primary infection in a less symptomatic period with rapid suppression of viral load and lower viral infection in lymphoid tissue can bring benefits.
On the other hand, during primary infection treatment also appears to reverse the decline in CD4 count, which is frequently experienced at this time. Some studies even suggest that a longer course of treatment in the early stages of infection can help in preserving some of the "Bodys", Natural ability to fight HIV. However, it is unclear how this will affect the long-term prognosis of the people. In addition, other studies have failed to find any real benefit, then there is still much uncertainty about this treatment strategy.
- At the moment only is recommended to treatment during primary infection:
- You have an AIDS-defining illness.
- If your nervous system (brain, spinal cord and nerves) are affected by HIV. (Translator's note: My primary infection was meningitis Today this would be the right treatment for me ... however ....)
- If you have a cell count below CD4 350.
- But the doctor must make decisions regarding their treatment based on their individual circumstances, in discussion with your doctor. One of the flyers in our illustrated series, the basics, is designed to help support a conversation about the issues. If the infection is very recent and you can find it on our website at www.aidsmap.com/thebasics.
- Because of the very high viral load that occurs during the early stages of infection, the risk of transmitting HIV to other people during unprotected sex, for example, can be very high during this period, and it may be interesting to adopt this treatment strategy, accompanying a serious psycho-social treatment that leads the person to seek to feel and show respect for human respect for the human person you will have sex with, after all, it is not with a person you do not love that you should think about having sex or having sex. Not even a "quickie" ..
Safe sex, as well as the use of condoms, are particularly important during this phase. HIV treatment reduces viral load and reduces contagion. If you are concerned about the risk of passing HIV, this may be another reason to consider HIV treatment during the primary infection.
Michael Carter, Greta Hughson
Published: March 04 2013
Translated and Adapted from English into Portuguese from Brazil by:
Review Mara Macedo