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Treatment of HIV - The Basics

Illustration of a retrovirusHIV treatments currently available do not cure HIV. But that can mean a vgoing longer and healthier.

Having a combination of drugs which act against the HIV virus (these are often called -or coquetel- antiretroviral drugs) may reduce the amount of HIV in the blood to a level that is so low that can not be detected with standard load test Viral. This is called an "undetectable viral load" and this is the goal of HIV treatment.

Having an undetectable viral load means that yourImmune systemcan recover and remain strong so it can fight off infections.

There are different types or classes of anti-HIV drugs. Each class works against HIV in a different way. HIV treatment typically includes three drugs in two different classes.

The classes of anti-HIV drugs

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors / nucleotides (NRTIs).
  • reverse transcriptase inhibitors Non-nucleoside (NNRTI).
  • Protease inhibitors (IPS).
  • Fusion inhibitors and entry.
  • Integrase inhibitors.

Most people have a combination that includes two NRTIs and one NNRTI or a protease inhibitor.

Inhibitors of integrase entry are approved for use by people starting HIV treatment, but at the moment they are generally reservados for many people who have had treatments against HIV last.


These drugs target a substance called reverse transcriptase that HIV uses to infect immune cells.

There are three types of drugs that work against reverse transcriptase.

The NRTIs are 3TC (lamivudine,Epivir), Abacavir (Ziagen), AZT (zidovudine,Retrovir), DdI (didadosine,Videx), D4T (stavudine,Zerit) And FTC (emtricitabineEmtriva).

Some NRTIs were combined in a single pill to make them easier to take. These are abacavir and 3TC (Kivexa), AZT and 3TC (Combivir), And abacavir, AZT and 3TC (Trizivir).

Is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTI), tenofovir (Viread), Which works against HIV in a manner similar to NRTIs. It is available in a combined pill with FTC calledTruvada.

Intre the NNRTI efavirenz are (Sustiva), Etravirine (Intelence), Nevirapine (Viramune) And rilpivirine (Edurant).

Efavirenz, Tenofovir and FTC are available in a combination pill calledAtripla.Rilpivirine, tenofovir and FTC are available in a combination called indigestibleEviplera.

Protease inhibitors

Protease is an enzyme of HIV. Drugs that attack it are called protease inhibitors.

Nearly every protease inhibitors are currently used "amplifiable." This means they can have their power increased by adding a small amount of a second call protease inhibitor ritonavir (Norvir).

Boosted protease inhibitors are recommended for people in early HIV tratatamento. The first line is atazanavir (Reyataz) / Ritonavir, darunavir (Prezista) / Ritonavir, fosamprenavir (Telzir) / Ritonavir, lopinavir / ritonavir (this is an indigestible combination calledKaletra) And saquinavir (Invirase) / Ritonavir.

Tipranavir (Aptivus) / Ritonavir is only approved for people who have had a large number of antiretroviral treatments in the past.

There are two other protease inhibitors that are now rarely used. These are indinavir (Crixivan) And nelfinavir (Viracept).

Fusion inhibitors and entry

Drugs from these classes prevent HIV from infecting cells. Its use is normally reserved for people who have had a large number of anti-HIV drugs in the past.

There is only one fusion inhibitor. It is called T-20 (enfuvirtide,Fuzeon) And is given by injection.

An entry inhibitor, or CCR5 inhibitor is also approved. It's called maraviroc (Celsentri). For this drug work as you need you must have what is known as co-receptor "CCR5" on the surface of HIV. Its clinical perform a test called tropism test to see whether they are suitable for treatment with an inhibitor CCR5. This medicine can be taken by people who are changing the treatment of HIV.

Integrase Inhibitors

These prevent HIV from integrating with cells of the immune system. A drug in its class approved, it is called raltegravir (Isentress). It can be taken by persons starting or changing HIV treatment.

When to start treatment

It is recommended that you start HIV treatment as soon as you are diagnosed.

Study Start changed all paradigms with respect to HIV treatment and, nowadays, everyone should start ART as soon as diagnosed.

The initiation of treatment with

In the UK guidelines recommend starting treatment Editor's Note Soropositivo.Org. By virtue of having a national treatment policy for people with HIV or AIDS patients I eliminated this part of the text and have downloaded the guidelines provided by the National STD / AIDS and Viral Hepatitis that will be incorporated to this page just below the credits Collateral effects

All drugs can causeCollateral effects. Side effects that drugs against HIV / AIDS can cause should be explained to you before you start having them. Side effects usually disappear or become lighter after a few weeks. Tell your doctor about side effects, especially eczema. If you have difficulty managing their side effects muitas is sometimes possible to do something for them.


HIV can developResistancedrugs used to treat it. You must have aResistance Test before you start changing treatment to make sure you are taking the most appropriate medication.

Taking your drugs correctly it can help prevent development of resistance. You can read more about this in the fact sheets andAdherence Adherence tips. These are available in

Michael Carter, Greta Hughson

Published: March 31 2012

Translated by Cláudio Santos de Souza of Contents this link HIV treatment

About Claudio Souza do Soropositivo.Org (507 articles)
Yes, this is the photo of me! My niece asked me to put this picture on my profile! .... I had here a description of me that one person described as "irreverent". This is really a euphemistic way of classifying what was here. All I know is that an "NGO" which occupies a building of 10 floors has established a partnership with me, and I have the logs of the partnership time, which was more a vampirism because for each 150 people leaving my site, clicking on them, there was, on average, one that came in. WHEN I ENTERED AND ENTERED
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