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Certain Vaginal Bacteria May Protect Against HIV Transmission

Note the Soropositivo.Org translator: Given the need to explain the term as it is the agenda of this article, I searched on Wikipedia the definition of the term microbiota. To know:

Inmedicine, animal husbandry, Veterinary, and agronomy, Is calledmicrobiotato all micro-organisms are generally found associated withtissues oragenciesanimals or plants (see, e.g.,indigenous oral microbiota). Microorganisms establishing permanent colonies in or on the body without producing disease composes the body's normal microflora. A "transient microbiota consists of microbes that are present for varying periods, may disappear temporarily. These micro-organisms living in these places more or less permanently and in some cases perform specific functions.

the termplant species(for example,gut) Should be abandoned since it refers toplantsWhile the micro-organisms belong to the groupsprotistaandbacteria. This is due to these organisms have beenClassifiedbetween plants intaxonomy of Linnaeus.

 

various types of pollenSpecific types ofLactobacillus (bacteria) in the vaginal mucosa may retain HIV and can help prevent sexual transmission of the virus to women, according to a report in the edition of six October Journal mBio. Furthermore, the researchers found that other species associated with bacterial vaginosis may increase susceptibility to HIV infection.

Kenetta Nunn of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and colleagues conducted a laboratory study of cervicovaginal mucus barrier properties. This mucus can provide a barrier to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases to reach target cells in the vaginal epithelium, preventing or reducing infections, noted as the background of the study.

By tracking fluorescent particles HIV-1 mucus cervicovaginal samples of several women, it was found that neither the pH mucus, lactic acid or Nugent scores (a rating system vaginal bacteria Pap test samples) were significantly correlated with trapped virus . However, HIV is generally trapped in the mucus with high concentrations of acid and D-lactic flora dominated by Lactobacilluscrispatus. In contrast, HIV is diffused rapidly through mucus with low D-lactic acid concentrations dominated by LactobacillusDinersor substantial amounts ofGardnerella vaginalis(associated with bacterial vaginosis).

"Our results demonstrate that the vaginal microbiota, including some species of Lactobacilli, can alter the properties of the diffusion barrier [mucus cervicovaginal] against HIV and possibly other sexually transmitted virus microbiotas and these related changes may rely in part to the high risks of acquisition-related bacterial vaginosis or through the vaginal microbiota, "the study authors concluded.

Below is an excerpt from an editionAmerican Society for Microbiology Press Releasedescribing the study and its findings in more detail.

Mucus Vaginal microbes can influence trap creation for HIV

Washington, DC - October 6 2015 - The HIV particles are effectively retained by cervicovaginal mucus from women who harbor a particular species of vaginal bacteria, Lactobacilluscrispatus. The findings, published this week in themBio, A website official open access of the American Society for Microbiology, could lead to the creation of new ways to reduce or block the transmission through the vagina of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (ists).

"Surfaces mucous membranes, such as the lung, gastrointestinal tract or female reproductive tract, are where most infections occur," says Sam Lai, assistant professor of pharmacy and engineering at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and senior author study. "Our bodies secrete more than six liters of mucus every day as a first line of defense."

Cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) can act as a barrier to prevent pathogens from reaching the vaginal wall and underlying cells, but the barrier properties vary greatly from woman to woman, and even at different times of the same woman. The IAF and colleagues wanted to know what accounts for these differences.

They collected samples of fresh CVM during 31 days in women of reproductive age measuring various mucus properties and using high resolution microscopes, with time intervals, with fluorescence microscopy techniques to test whether the pseudovirus particles HIV they became trapped in the mucus or is diffused freely.

The researchers looked at two distinct populations of CVM samples, one that was very good in capturing HIV and who was not. Traps HIV do not correlate with the mucus ", pH, total lactic acid, Nugent score, an approximate measure of the" health "of vaginal delivery that reflects how manyLactobacillusThey are present in comparison with other microbes.

One difference between the two groups, higher levels of D-lactic acid in the group that retained HIV, stood out among researchers because humans can not do D-lactic acid. The team suspects that different live bacteria within the mucous layer accounted for differences in lactic acid D. When they sequenced ribosome genes to identify bacteria in each sample, the researchers found that the samples fall again into two groups.
'
Bacteria L. crispatusHe dominated the CVM holding HIV. In contrast, the CVM not retain had a different HIVlactobacillus species,L. inersOr had various bacterial species present includingGardnerella vaginalis -both conditions that are often associated with bacterial vaginosis.

"I was really surprised by the slight difference betweenlactobacillimake a big difference in the mucus barrier properties, "said Lai. In the clinical setting, there is a clear relationship between bacterial vaginosis and an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting STDs.

Historically, Lai explains, gynecologists believe that the vaginal microflora to be healthy, it should be dominated by one species of Lactobacillus. "But our work shows that, from a prospect to a mucosal barrier, this is not a good enough distinction," said Lai.

Health professionals should be aware that women who have harborL. inersprobably have a substantially increased risk of acquiring STDs. And, conversely,L. crispatusdominant microflora can be protective against HIV and STDs than previously appreciated.

The group also showed thatL. crispatusAt CVM caused to be more "sticky" against HIV particles - instead of making a mucus with a "mesh" tighter. The barrier function was not unique to HIV particles, and probably would also hold other viruses.

The Lai notes that CVM can be thought of as a "biological condom" which could be enhanced by changing the vaginal microbiota of women. "If we could find a way to tilt the battle in favor ofL. crispatusin women, then we would be increasing the barrier properties of a CVM instruction, and improving protection against STDs, "he says.

Translated by Claudio Souza's originalCertain Vaginal Bacteria May Protect Against HIV Transmission During Fripublished in 07 / 10 / 15. Reviewed by Mara Macedo

Reference

Nunn KL, Wang YY, Harit D, SK Lai et al. The capture of HIV-1 by human cervicovaginal mucus is associated withLactobacillus crispatus-Microbiota Dominant. mBio6 (5): e01084-15. 6 2015 OF OCTOBER.

Another source

American Society for Microbiology. Vaginal microbes; mucus can influence trap against HIV.Press release. 6 2015 OF OCTOBER.

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