As mentioned in Previous textAny number of factors can make people more likely to have age-related diseases and conditions at higher rates in young people. The people with HIV are more likely to have some of these risk factors than HIV-negative people - for example, if they are smokers, they are more likely to be infected with other harmful viruses and, thus, leading them to have worse health conditions as they grow old. The researchers also wondered how or if HIV alone is a risk factor for age-related diseases and conditions.
There is no doubt that many of the diseases associated with aging occur at higher rates in people with HIV and in much younger people than in people not infected with HIV. Here are just some of the conditions:
- Muscle Mass loss or bad redistribution of body fat - (Lipodystrophy)
- Cardiovascular disease
- Diseases Liver
- Diseases kidney
What some experts argue, however, that a number of factors in addition to HIV, can contribute significantly to these problems.
Consider the following:
- People with HIV taking antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and some of them (Truvada for example - Opens in another browser tab), may contribute to bone loss, kidney damage, fat and cholesterol redistribution, and elevated triglycerides (dyslipidemia).
People living with HIV are much more likely than the general population to be co-infected with Hepatitis B or C and sometimes all three, which increase the risk of liver cancer, liver failure, kidney disease, and diabetes.
- People living with HIV are often more likely to be chronically infected with human papilloma virus (HPV) that causes cervical and anal cancer as well as cancers of the head, neck and throat.
- People living with HIV are up to three times more likely to smoke tobacco (cigarette - this thing kills), which is a major cause of heart attack, Stroke, emphysema and lung cancer.
- People with HIV have rates mental illness and substance abuse that are often higher than people who do not have HIV, and these diseases increase the risk of many other diseases.
- HIV can directly infect the essential tissues in bones, brain, Circulatory system and elsewhere, and that can cause inflammation and damage related to the heart, nervous system, Liver and kidneys.
These factors are likely to play important roles in increasing the rates of aging-related diseases and conditions observed in people with HIV. The point at which experts have not yet reached a common denominator is how HIV itself can further aggravate underlying risk factors through inflammation and has age-related immunosenescence known to contribute to the aging process and related problems.
Researchers are working hard to try to understand how quickly the inflammation and leads to acts immunosenescence related to age in people with HIV, after becoming infected. There is no evidence that could lead to the conclusion that this will happen soon, or shortly after a person contracting HIV, and there is also evidence that good control of the virus (either because as a person naturally control HIV and [Elite controllers] or because he or she started antiretroviral therapy - ART) may this process be a little slower or not.
Experts have not yet ruled out any doubts about how best to assess chronic inflammation by HIV and / or assess whether the patient has age-related immunosenescence. And we do not yet know how much these conditions independently contribute to the aging and development of aging-related diseases, both in HIV-negative patients and in people with HIV. Research work is underway, however, seeking ways to answer these questions. However, there are many interventions that can enable a person living with HIV to reduce the risk of many age-related diseases and conditions. And this is what will be seen in the next post, to be published next Monday, the sixteenth of November of 2015.
Tradução: Claudio de Souza Santos
Still to be revised
The source text will be published when all articles are translated.