As mentioned in Previous textAny number of factors can make people more likely to have diseases and conditions related to age at higher rates in young people. People with HIV are more likely to have some of these risk factors to HIV-negative people - for example, if they are smokers, are more likely to be infected with other harmful viruses and, thus, causing them to have the worst conditions health as they age. The researchers also asked how or if the HIV per se is a risk factor for diseases and conditions related to age.
There is no doubt that many of the diseases associated with aging occur at higher rates in people with HIV and in much younger people than in people not infected with HIV. Here are just some of the conditions:
- Muscle Mass loss or bad redistribution of body fat- (Lipodystrophy)
- Cardiovascular disease
- Diseases Liver
- Diseases kidney
What some experts argue, however, that a number of factors in addition to HIV, can contribute significantly to these problems.
Consider the following:
- People with HIV taking antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and some of them (Truvadafor example - opens in another browser tab), may contribute to bone loss kidney damage, redistribution of fat and cholesterol and high triglyceride levels (dyslipidemia).
People living with HIV are much more likely than the general population to be co-infected with hepatitis B or C and sometimes all three, which increase the risk of liver cancer, liver failure, kidney disease and diabetes.
- People living with HIV are often more likely to be chronically infected with human papilloma virus (HPV) that causes cervical and anal cancer as well as cancers of the head, neck and throat.
- People with HIV are three times more likely to smoking tobacco (cigarettes - that slaughterhouse thing), which is a major cause of heart attack, Stroke, emphysema and lung cancer.
- People with HIV have rates mental illness and substance abuse that are often higher than people who do not have HIV, and these diseases increase the risk of many other diseases.
- HIV can directly infect the essential tissues in bones, brain, Circulatory system and elsewhere, and that can cause inflammation and damage related to the heart, nervous system, Liver and kidneys.
These factors, and probably play important roles in increasing disease rates related to aging and the conditions observed in people with HIV. The point at which the experts have not reached a common denominator is like the HIV infection itself may further exacerbate underlying risk factors through inflammation and has age-related immunosenescence known to contribute to the aging process and related issues.
Researchers are working hard to try to understand how quickly the inflammation and leads to acts immunosenescence related to age in people with HIV, after becoming infected. There is no evidence that could lead to the conclusion that this will happen soon, or shortly after a person contracting HIV, and there is also evidence that good control of the virus (either because as a person naturally control HIV and [Elite controllers] Or because he or she began antiretroviral therapy - ART) may this process a little slower or not.
Experts still did not eliminate the doubts about the best way to assess chronic inflammation by HIV and / or to assess whether the patient has age-related immunosenescence. And we still do not know how these conditions contribute independently to aging and the development of age-related diseases, either in HIV-negative patients or in people with HIV. Are ongoing research, however, looking for ways to answer these questions. However, there are many interventions that can allow the person living with HIV can reduce the risk of many diseases and conditions related to age. And that's what we will see in the next post, to be published on Monday, November 16th day of 2015.
Tradução: Claudio de Souza Santos
Still to be revised
The source text will be published when all articles are translated.