Couples with a person who is HIV positive and the other is HIV negative are sometimes called "serodiscordant" or "sorodivergentes". "Seropositivity" refers to whether someone is living or not living in the carrier status of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
HIV is not the first topic that comes up when most couples start dating. You may not know the HIV status for HIV their partner. You may not have been tested for HIV. It can be very difficult to talk about positive HIV seropositivity.See page provided to others that you are HIV positiveFor some ideas.
What are the questions especially for serodiscordant couples?
People in serodiscordant relationships must face all the same things that other couples. But there are some extra questions:
- The HIV-positive partner should focus on not infecting their partners. The HIV negative partner should focus on taking care of someone else. This can cause a serious lack of balance in the relationship.
- HIV can cause changes in the body (seeIndeed sheet 553.) Antiretroviral drugs can have unpleasant side effects. This can give the HIV positive partner negative feelings about your body and your health. It may be difficult for them to feel attractive and believe that they can have a normal romantic relationship.
- Fear of transmitting HIV can cause an excess of caution. This can even stop all sexual activities. Please review the following records:
150: Stopping the Spread of HIV
151: Safer Fri Guidelines
152: How Risky Is It?
- Try to open the discussion about their desires, their fears and their limits. Reaching agreement on the ways of sexual expression that fit with the level of risk you feel comfortable positioning. Talking about the sexual relationship can help.
Drugs ARVs (antiretroviral therapy or HAART control of HIV infection) may well help to engage in sexual activity, using PrEP.Indeed sheet 403Has more information on ART.
The good news about HAART about taking PrEP and how it works. There is no cure for AIDS and ART with good adhesion can free you from becoming infected with HIV and can help you live a full and healthy sex life with a partner / partner.
ART can also make it very unlikely that you can transmit HIV to your partner. If you keep viral load undetectable (seeIndeed sheet 125), There will be minimal chances of transmitting HIV to your partner. However, there are several important things to remember:
- You have to maintain adherence to ART strictly, for it to work and there is no transmission to your partner and to prevent the virus gain access to the possibility of generating a mutation resistant make ART, which would invalidate more than ten years studies that allowed us to get to these conclusions. THE Indeed sheet 405has more information on adherence to treatment.
- An "undetectable viral load" does not mean zero. This means that there is a sufficient amount of HIV in your blood sample to be detected by the tests we have at the moment (translator's note: in the year 2016 the detection capability for clinical use has the ability to detect quantities exceeding forty Viral RNA copies).
- The viral load test measures the amount of virus in the blood. Nothing about virus in sexual fluids (semen or vaginal fluids).
- The result of the viral load test was for when your sample was taken, not today. Viral load can change quickly, especially if you get sick with a cold or flu, or even if you take vaccines.
Even with all these warnings, it is very rare for someone who is on ART have undetectable viral load and infect a / one partner / partner.
Using a condom
It is rare for a partner with undetectable viral load can transmit HIV. However, it still makes sense to take additional measures such as using a condom (seeIndeed sheet 153.) Condoms are very effective in preventing the spread of HIV. They should be used properly, one every time there is a transaction. If you have access to condoms, you can relax and enjoy even greater peace of mind during sexual activity.
Other ways to reduce the risk
- The risk is lower if the infected partner is taking antiretroviral drugs (ART, seeIndeed sheet 403.)
- If so, take all regular doses of medication.
- Avoid sexual activity during any infection: a sexually transmitted disease or even a cold or flu.
- Avoid sexual activity within two weeks after taking any vaccine.
If you are exposed to HIV ...
If a condom bursts or if you forget to use an anti-HIV medication you can still prevent transmission. Talk to your doctor about PEP, "prophylaxis post exposure" (seeIndeed sheet 156.) This is a proven action to prevent transmission between sexual partners. Do not just take a few doses of medication your partner! That may not be the appropriate treatment. For PEP work should be started very soon after exposure to HIV. Discuss PEP with your doctor in advance so that you know what are your options if something happens that exposes the negative partner to HIV.
Translator's note: I translate as PEP because it is "current voice say PEP for what would be, in good Portuguese Post Exposure Prophylaxis and thus the correct acronym would PPE. Although some people have tried in every way to convince me that it is easier to remember than PEP PPE I can not see a large power consumption by the brain to determine and pronounce PPE. I know this is beyond the translation scope, but I insist on this point because I have seen over my little over fifty years, a real mutilation of Portuguese (This is a "linguistic phenomenon" almost exclusively from Brazil) which is beautiful and rich with respect to the lexicon and, if a person can ride a "Mountain bike", he could easily talk bike trails, without this desmerecesse practiced sport, focusing our language, which is our communication base and is the one thing subtle that makes you realize in full "New York" that people who are passing by you are, like you, Brazilians. The language is the identity of its source and I do not end up talking about it. Let us return to translation
Having children if the man has HIV
Recent studies show that it is possible to "wash" (...) the sperm of a man infected with HIV so that it can be used to fertilize a woman and produce a healthy baby. These procedures are effective but very expensive. A recent cost estimate was about $ 10.000, health insurance probably will not cover the cost. It can be very difficult to find a place for sperm washing.
Having children if the woman has HIV
Without treatment, up to 35% of pregnant women with HIV can pass the infection to their newborns. With proper treatment, the risk of HIV transmission to newborns drops to 2% (seeIndeed sheet 611.) (In the city of Santos, in the year 2014, there was an important note informing that had already been four years without births of children living with HIV, with the exception of one, whose scatterbrained mother refused to treat at least during the pregnancy)
Artificial insemination, a simple, puts the man's sperm in the woman's vagina. this allows pregnancywithout exposing man to HIV (note that sexual intercourse without a condom with ART practically liquidates the possibility of contagion and that women are ten times more vulnerable to HIV than men).
If a woman with HIV becomes pregnant, she should be very careful to stay healthy during pregnancy. Be sure to discuss pregnancy with your doctor, preferably before becoming pregnant. Your doctor will help you with the treatment you need to reduce the chance of your baby being born without being infected. Also avoid breastfeeding a newborn. This may transmit HIV. THE Indeed sheet 611has more information on pregnancy HIV positive women.
Translator's Note: In Time: The lexicon can be considered as the heritage vocabulary of a language community throughout its history, a collection that is transmitted from one generation to the next generation.
The language the user uses the lexicon, this open inventory of available words in your language, for the formation of their vocabulary for their own expression at the time of speech and for the effectiveness of the communication process. Thus, the vocabulary of an individual is characterized by the selection and the personal jobs that he does lexicon. The higher the user vocabulary, the greater the possibility of choosing the most appropriate word to your expressive intent