What is CD4 and to serving the Test CD4 cells?

What are the CD4 cells?

CD4 is a molecule that is expressed on the surface of some T cells, macrophages, monocytes and in the dendritic cell. It is a monomeric glycoprotein of 59kDa that contains four immunoglobulin-like domains (wikipedia - CD4)

CD4 cells are a type of lymphocytes (white blood cell). They are an important part of the immune system. CD4 cells are sometimes called T cells. There are two main types of T cells. T-4 cells, also called CD4, are "Auxiliary Cells". They led the attack on infections. T-8 (CD8 cells) are "suppressor cells" of the immune response. CD8 cells can also be "Killer" (killer) cells that kill cancer cells and virus-infected cells.

These cells look for and characterize other cells and infectious agents by specific proteins on the surface of the cell. A T-4 cell is a T cell with CD4 molecules on its surface. This type of T cell is also called the "Positive Cell" cell, CD4 or CD4.

Why are the cells CD4 IMPORTANT IN HIV INFECTION?

HIV most often infects CD4 cells. The virus becomes part of the cells and, when multiplied to fight an infection, they make more copies of HIV.

When someone is infected with HIV but has not started treatment, the number of CD4 cells is decreasing. This is a sign that the immune system is being weakened. The lower the CD4 cell count, the greater the likelihood of this person becoming ill.

There are millions of different families of CD4 cells. Each family is designed to fight a specific type of germ. When HIV decreases the number of CD4 cells, some of these families can be eradicated. You may lose the ability to fight off germs whose families have been designed. If this happens, you can develop a opportunistic infection (See Fact Sheet 500).

WHAT IS A CD4 TEST?

A small sample of blood is taken. Blood is tested for counts of various cell types. CD4 cells are not counted directly. Instead, the lab does a calculation based on total white blood cells and the proportion of cells that are CD4. Therefore, the CD4 count is not accurate.

The current treatment (see Sheet of fact 404) suggests monitoring CD4 through testing every 3 to 6 months when initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART, see Sheet of fact 403). Since the treatment increases the levels of CD4 to high levels, the test should be done every 6 to 12 months.

What are the factors influencing CD4 cell count?

The value of CD4 cells varies around batches. Time of day, fatigue and stress can affect test results. It is best to have blood drawn at the same time of day for each cell testPay 937884 CD4 and to use the same laboratory.
Infections can have a major impact on the CD4 cell count. When your body fights an infection, the number of white blood cells (lymphocytes) rise. And the CD4 and CD8 cell count goes up too high. Vaccination may cause the same effects. Do not check your CD4 cells until a couple of weeks after recovering from an infection or being vaccinated.

How are the results of the CD4 test reported?

Tests of CD4 cells are usually reported as the number of cells in a cubic millimeter of blood or mm3. Normal counts are usually between 500 and 1600.

Because the CD4 cell count is so variable, some healthcare providers prefer to look at the percentage of CD4 cells. If your test reports 4% CD = 34%, which means that 34% of your lymphocytes were CD4 cells. This percentage is more stable than the number of CD4 cells.

A count of CD4 below 200 indicates severe damage to the immune system. It is a sign of AIDS in people with HIV infection. Although the percentage of CD4 may be a better predictor of progression of HIV disease than the CD4 count, the CDXUMUMX count is used to decide when to start treatment.

The doctor who triggered the situation of dread that I have accompanied reminds me of something that, who has more than 35 years certainly know what it is:

MONGA

The normal range is somewhere between 30% and 60%. Different laboratories use different ranges. There are no guidelines for treatment of decisions based on percentages of CD4. However, a percentage of CD4 below 14 is a definition of AIDS.

What do the numbers mean?

The CD4 cell count is a key measure of immune system health. The lower the count, the greater the damage caused by HIV. Those who have less than 200 CD4 cells or a percentage less than 14%, are considered to be AIDS patients according to the US Centers for Disease Control and also the National STD / AIDS and Viral Hepatitis Program of the Ministry of Health.

CD4 counts are used in conjunction with viral load to estimate how long someone will stay healthy. See Sheet of fact 125 for more information about the viral load test.

CD4 counts are also used to indicate when to start certain types of drug treatment:

When to start the drug to prevent opportunistic infections:

Most health care providers prescribe medications to prevent opportunistic infections at the following levels of CD4:
Less than 200: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP, see Sheet of fact 515)
Less than 100: toxoplasmosis (see Sheet of fact 517) and cryptococcosis (see Sheet of fact 503)
Less than 50: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, see Sheet of fact 514)

Monitoring of treatment success:

With the success of ART, CD4 counts can sometimes rise rapidly. Other times they may climb slowly. If the CD4 count is low when the TARV starts, the CDXUMUMX counts may not recover to normal levels. {Note from Translator, not to mention me, I quote Beatriz Pacheco and Beto Volpe, whose clinical records, if read by an unsuspecting physician, could at some point say that "these people are dead" the truth is that they waste, give , sell, lease, and spend health with the success of their treatments which, at the time of their respective beginnings, were not "very promising"]. In addition, if CD4 counts fall while you are on ART, it may be occurring failure and one of the reasons may be due to the maintain your treatment adherence in a Spartan way. Higher counts of CD4 are better. However, a normal CD4 count does not guarantee a normal immune system. Continuous monitoring The current treatment guideline (available at http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines ) suggests that if a patient maintains viral load undetectable, the CD4 count can be done once a year or even less often. OF ILLNESS AND DEATH Non-AIDS-Related Now that people with AIDS live longer, there is more research into other causes of illness and death. These are non-AIDS-related causes of death, which include liver disease, non-AIDS-related cancer, and heart disease. Overall, these deaths are declining. However, the research shows a clear link between the low CD4 count and the risk of death. Bottom Line Because they are an important indicator of the strength of the immune system, an information sheet of treatment guidelines in the US suggests that the CD5 count should be monitored every six to twelve months for people whose ART has worked to maintain a high level of CD5 cells. Editor's note: On my last visit to the AIDS House, my Physician (with "M" like that, capital) gave me similar instructions, and although I was a bit upset with the government, I was sure Angela would not do that nor under heavy coercion, and accepted peacefully. Editing the text, now, I see that I was right about my considerations by the person who studied and dedicated his days to keep me and about four hundred other patients alive and healthy Translated and edited by Claudio Souza from the original in Fact Sheet 124 CD124 Cell Tests in 4 April 06 Revised by Mara Macedo Tell your friends! If you do not like it ... Com o sucesso da TARV, contagens de CD4 ás vezes podem subir rapidamente. Outras vezes eles podem subir lentamente. Se a contagem de CD4 é baixa quando a TARV é iniciado, as contagens de CD4 podem não recuperar para os níveis normais. {Nota do Tradutor, para não mencionar a mim, cito Beatriz Pacheco e Beto Volpe, cujos históricos clínicos, se lidos por um médico desavisado, poderia, em determinado momento dizer que “estas pessoas estão mortas” a verdade é que eles esbanjam, dão, vendem, alugam e esbanjam saúde com o sucesso de seus tratamentos que, na época do seus respectivos inícios, não eram “lá muito promissores”], Além disso, se contagens de CD4 cair enquanto você está em TARV, pode ser que esteja ocorrendo falência terapêutica e uma das razões disso pode dever-se a impontualidade na aplicação dos medicamentos; mantenha sua adesão ao tratamento de forma espartana. Maiores contagens de CD4 são melhores. No entanto, uma contagem normal de CD4 não garante um sistema imune normal.

Monitoramento contínuo
A diretriz atual de tratamento (disponível em http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines) sugere que se um paciente mantém a carga viral indetectável, a contagem de CD4 pode ser feito uma vez por ano ou mesmo com menos frequência.

DA DOENÇA E DA MORTE Não relacionados à AIDS

Agora que as pessoas com AIDS vivem mais, há mais investigação sobre outras causas de doença e morte. Estas são as causas de morte não relacionadas à AIDS, que incluem doença hepática, câncer não relacionado à AIDS, e doenças cardíaca. Globalmente, estas mortes estão a diminuir. No entanto, a investigação mostra uma clara ligação entre a baixa contagem de CD4 e o risco de morte.

Linha Inferior

Porque eles são como um importante indicador da força do sistema imune, uma folha informativa de orientações de tratamento nos EUA sugere que a contagem de CD4 deve ser monitorada a cada seis a doze meses para pessoas cuja TARV tem funcionado de forma a manter um elevado nível de células CD4.

Nota do editor: Na minha última passagem pela Casa da AIDS, minha Médica (Com “M” assim, capital) passou-me instruções similares e, embora eu tenha saído um pouco contrariado com o governo, tive a certeza que Ângela não faria isso nem sob forte coerção e aceitei pacificamente. Editando o texto, agora, vejo que eu estava certo quanto às minhas considerações pela pessoa que estudou e tem dedicado seus dias para manter a mim e a mais ou menos outros quatrocentos pacientes vivos e saudáveis

Traduzido e editado por Claudio Souza do original em Fact Sheet 124 CD4 Cell Tests em 06 de Abril de 2016 Revisado por Mara Macedo

Yes, this is the photo of me! My niece asked me to put this picture on my profile! .... I had here a description of me that one person described as "irreverent". This is really a euphemistic way of classifying what was here. All I know is that an "NGO" which occupies a building of 10 floors has established a partnership with me, and I have the logs of the partnership time, which was more a vampirism because for each 150 people leaving my site, clicking on them, there was, on average, one that came in. WHEN I ENTERED AND ENTERED

8 Comments

  1. I'm undetectable for a year, but CD4 and CD8 are still low. My last CD4 result was 88
    Being that 74 was in the previous result.
    I do not know what to do, I take vitamins, I eat very well, I exercise. Sorry it was just an outburst. But the fight continues.

  2. Miriam, you have reason to be worried, and that worries me too.
    The fact is that you have a serious immune deficiency and I ask if the treating physician has entered with at least one broad-spectrum antibiotic like chemoprophylaxis.
    If he / she did not make it possible for the person to read this and give me news. Thank you

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