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11, December, 2019

What is CD4 and CD4 Molecule and What Are CD4 Tests For?

CD4

What is CD Cell and CD4 Molecule?

This is, I would say, the question of one million pounds sterling!

Because it is the name of the CD4 Cells, the cells that express the CD4 molecule, indispensable for the HIV infection

What is CD4 And ​​What Are CD4 Tests For? And What Is A CD4 Molecule

CD4 is a molecule that is expressed on the surface of some T cells, macrophages, monocytes and the dendritic cell. It is a monomeric 59k glycoprotein containing four immunoglobulin-like domains. (Wikipedia - CD4)

CD4 cells are a type of lymphocyte (white blood cell).

They are an important part of the immune system.

CD4 cells are sometimes referred to as T cells. There are two main types of T cells. T-4 cells, also called CD4, are “Auxiliary Cells".

They led the attack on infections. T-8 (CD8 cells) are "suppressor cells" of the immune response. CD8 cells can also be "killers" that kill cancer cells and cells infected with viruses.

It is important to note, for this is a common and erroneous doubt or self-definition:

Hemograms, even with "leukocyte drops" do not serve as pathogens of immune deficiency.

These cells look for and characterize other cells and infectious agents for specific proteins on the cell surface.

A T-4 cell is a T cell with CD4 molecules on its surface. This type of T cell is also called a “positive cell”, CD4 or CD4 cell.

Why are the cells CD4 IMPORTANT IN HIV INFECTION?

HIV often infects CD4 cells. The virus becomes part of the cells, and when it multiplies to fight an infection, they make more copies of HIV.

When someone is infected with HIV but has not started treatment, the number of CD4 cells is decreasing. This is a sign that the immune system is being weakened. The lower the CD4 cell count, the greater the likelihood of this person becoming ill.

There are millions of different families of CD4 cells. Each family is designed to fight a specific type of germ. When HIV decreases the number of CD4 cells, some of these families can be eradicated. You may lose the ability to fight off germs whose families have been designed. If this happens, you can develop a opportunistic infection (See Fact Sheet 500).

WHAT IS A CD4 TEST?

A small sample of blood is taken. Blood is tested for counts of various cell types. CD4 cells are not counted directly. Instead, the lab does a calculation based on total white blood cells and the proportion of cells that are CD4. Therefore, the CD4 count is not accurate.

The current treatment (see Sheet of fact 404) suggests monitoring CD4 through testing every 3 to 6 months when initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART, see Sheet of fact 403). Since the treatment increases the levels of CD4 to high levels, the test should be done every 6 to 12 months.

What are the factors influencing CD4 cell count?

The value of CD4 cells varies around batches. Time of day, fatigue and stress can affect test results. It is best to have blood drawn at the same time of day for each cell testPay 937884 CD4 and to use the same laboratory.
Infections can have a major impact on the CD4 cell count. When your body fights an infection, the number of white blood cells (lymphocytes) rise. And the CD4 and CD8 cell count goes up too high. Vaccination may cause the same effects. Do not check your CD4 cells until a couple of weeks after recovering from an infection or being vaccinated.

How are the results of the CD4 test reported?

Tests of CD4 cells are usually reported as the number of cells in a cubic millimeter of blood or mm3. Normal counts are usually between 500 and 1600.

Because the CD4 cell count is so variable, some healthcare providers prefer to look at the percentage of CD4 cells. If your test reports 4% CD = 34%, which means that 34% of your lymphocytes were CD4 cells. This percentage is more stable than the number of CD4 cells.

A count of CD4 below 200 indicates severe damage to the immune system. It is a sign of AIDS in people with HIV infection. Although the percentage of CD4 may be a better predictor of progression of HIV disease than the CD4 count, the CDXUMUMX count is used to decide when to start treatment.

The doctor who triggered the situation of dread that I have accompanied reminds me of something that, who has more than 35 years certainly know what it is:

CD4 Is A Type Of Lymphocyte

The normal range is somewhere between 30% and 60%. Different laboratories use different ranges. There are no guidelines for treatment of decisions based on percentages of CD4. However, a percentage of CD4 below 14 is a definition of AIDS.

What do the numbers mean?

The CD4 cell count is a key measure of immune system health. The lower the count, the greater the damage caused by HIV. Those who have less than 200 CD4 cells or a percentage less than 14%, are considered to be AIDS patients according to the US Centers for Disease Control and also the National STD / AIDS and Viral Hepatitis Program of the Ministry of Health.

CD4 counts are used in conjunction with viral load to estimate how long someone will stay healthy. See Sheet of fact 125 for more information about the viral load test.

CD4 counts are also used to indicate when to start certain types of drug treatment:

When to start the drug to prevent opportunistic infections:

Most health care providers prescribe medications to prevent opportunistic infections at the following levels of CD4:
Less than 200: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP, see Sheet of fact 515)
Less than 100: toxoplasmosis (see Sheet of fact 517) and cryptococcosis (see Sheet of fact 503)
Less than 50: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, see Sheet of fact 514)

Monitoring of treatment success:

Com o sucesso da TARV, contagens de CD4 ás vezes podem subir rapidamente. Outras vezes eles podem subir lentamente. Se a contagem de CD4 é baixa quando a TARV é iniciado, as contagens de CD4 podem não recuperar para os níveis normais. {Nota do Tradutor, para não mencionar a mim, cito Beatriz Pacheco e Beto Volpe, cujos históricos clínicos, se lidos por um médico desavisado, poderia, em determinado momento dizer que “estas pessoas estão mortas” a verdade é que eles esbanjam, dão, vendem, alugam e esbanjam saúde com o sucesso de seus tratamentos que, na época do seus respectivos inícios, não eram “lá muito promissores”], Além disso, se contagens de CD4 cair enquanto você está em TARV, pode ser que esteja ocorrendo falência terapêutica e uma das razões disso pode dever-se a impontualidade na aplicação dos medicamentos; mantenha sua adesão ao tratamento de forma espartana. Maiores contagens de CD4 são melhores. No entanto, uma contagem normal de CD4 não garante um sistema imune normal.

Monitoramento contínuo

A diretriz atual de tratamento (disponível em http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines) sugere que se um paciente mantém a carga viral indetectável, a contagem de CD4 pode ser feito uma vez por ano ou mesmo com menos frequência.

DA DOENÇA E DA MORTE Não relacionados à AIDS

Agora que as pessoas com AIDS vivem mais, há mais investigação sobre outras causas de doença e morte. Estas são as causas de morte não relacionadas à AIDS, que incluem doença hepática, câncer não relacionado à AIDS, e doenças cardíaca. Globalmente, estas mortes estão a diminuir. No entanto, a investigação mostra uma clara ligação entre a baixa contagem de CD4 e o risco de morte.

Linha Inferior

Porque eles são como um importante indicador da força do sistema imune, uma folha informativa de orientações de tratamento nos EUA sugere que a contagem de CD4 deve ser monitorada a cada seis a doze meses para pessoas cuja TARV tem funcionado de forma a manter um elevado nível de células CD4.

Nota do editor: Na minha última passagem pela Casa da AIDS, minha Médica (Com “M” assim, capital) passou-me instruções similares e, embora eu tenha saído um pouco contrariado com o governo, tive a certeza que Ângela não faria isso nem sob forte coerção e aceitei pacificamente. Editando o texto, agora, vejo que eu estava certo quanto às minhas considerações pela pessoa que estudou e tem dedicado seus dias para manter a mim e a mais ou menos outros quatrocentos pacientes vivos e saudáveis

Traduzido e editado por Claudio Souza do original em Fact Sheet 124 CD4 Cell Tests em 06 de Abril de 2016 Revisado por Mara Macedo

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O que vem depois da foto não é para você pensar:
“Nossa! Como ele sofreu!.
É para você por em sua cabeça que é possível passar até por bem mais que isso!
Quando escrevo que Há Vida Com HIV é disso e de muito mais que eu falo!!!
Apesar da infecão por HIV, e mesmo que raramente, eu consigo sorrir!
I know! The shirt is awful. I tried this same smile with another t-shirt. But the reason for the smile was no longer around! 🙂 It really is. Yeah, that smile on me is rare

Related Articles you may like to read

7 It seems like a debate is starting to happen here! Participate

Fernando 20/12/2017 at 16:17:33

I went to the doctor hj, and the result for the second time was DETECTABLE, She requested again tests of viral load and CD4. But I make irregular use of cocaine. Could this be influencing the results?

And here we have this answer
Cláudio Souza do Soropositivo.Org 22/12/2017 at 09:21:58

What exam?

And here we have this answer
1 2

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