HIV and inflammation

What is inflammation?

Inflammation is the beginning of a response to infection or injury. It is a "non-specific immune response." They do not vary depending on the type of injury or infection.

Most body repair tools circulate in the blood. These include antibodies, T cellsand other white blood cells, clotting factors, chemicals that can kill germs and nutrients to feed the injured cells.

Chemicals that undergo a clearance process of the damaged cells that communicate with the immune system. They attract healing cells and chemicals. Help these healing and inflammation factors leave the bloodstream and work damaged tissue. Blood vessels expand, increasing blood flow to the damaged area. The inflammation causes changes in blood vessels structures, making it easier for the plasma move to the adjacent tissues. This brings up a 'swelling'. The inflammation also causes redness, heat and pain. In addition, it reduces tissue function.

Coagulation(The formation of blood clots) is part of inflammation. This may occur in the skin (for example, stopping bleeding from a cut) or within the body (eg, building a barrier around germs or protect a damaged area in the lining of a blood vessel).

The coagulation must remain in balance with the breaking and removal of clots. This process is calledfibrinolysis. Fibrin is the protein that form clots. The suffix "lysis" means reduction or destruction. Editor's note: because the word is of little use and I even unknown, to better understand what I translate, I went to my wonderful source of information, which is the Wikipedia :

"From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The fibrinolysisis the process by which aclotby fibrin(Product ofcoagulationofblood) Is destroyed. Fibrin is degraded byplasminleading to the production of circulating fragments that are then destroyed by otherproteinasesor bykidneysandliver.

It is the process that is related to activation of coagulation. It is the breakdown of fibrin soluble fragments to the vessel recanalization, it is important in the injured vessel reconstruction. There is an inactive protein of hepatic origin (plasminogen) which when activated to plasmin is able to break down the fibrin degradation products (PDF). The plasminogen activators are active factor XII, urokinase and tissue plasminogen factor (TPA) present in the vascular endothelium. Plasmin is a proteolytic enzyme which breaks down fibrin and fibrinogen. "

Note Editor: I have just discovered what saved me in two pulmonary embolisms

acute and chronic inflammation

Acute inflammation usually occurs in response to injury such as a cut or a sprain, or a localized infection. Acute inflammation ends when specific chemicals circulate to "turn off" the inflammation.

However, inflammation may also be chronic. Chronic inflammation causes tissue damage and scarring. The blood vessels remain permeable. White blood cells continue to leave the blood and accumulate in the tissue. immune cells can "suffer wear" and stop working properly. The chronic inflammation eventually destroys the surrounding tissue and creates scar tissue. It can also contribute to allergies, asthma or "autoimmune" diseases like arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In autoimmune diseases, the body sometimes makes antibodies that attack the healthy cells.

The ongoing inflammation is associated with many chronic diseases. These include cardiac failure, kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dementia, and frailty.

HIV causes inflammation

HIV is a chronic infection. Even patients with undetectable viral load create new viruses. This may contribute to a continuation of inflammation. Antiretroviral drugs reduce the inflammatory conditions but not reduced to normal levels.

Over time, HIV (if left untreated) weakens the immune system. Old infections may come back (you know that mumps?). Almost all patients infected with HIV are also infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV, seeIndeed sheet 504) Latent. However, with the fall of CD4 count, CMV can become active in people with HIV, causing additional inflammation.

Other infections or illnesses (comorbidities) are important in understanding the health of people with HIV. Infections like hepatitis or herpes (seeIndeed sheet 507) Are also common.


Leaky gut syndrome

The mouth and the digestive tract such as skin, keeps the body free from threats. The "iniciall point" of the digestive tract is the mouth. Poor dental health can lead to infection and inflammation generally (seeIndeed sheet 653.) (Read also the importance of oral health)

The gut associated lymphoid tissues typically contain about 70% of immune cells in the body. The intestines have a surface approximately equal to the size of a football field! The immune system in the gut is called gut-associated lymphoid tissue, or GALT (English acronym untranslatable). It protects the body of microorganisms in food. Damage is caused by too early to HIV-associated lymphoid tissue in the intestine infection.

Inflammation in the gut makes it easier to pass germs out of the gut and "escape" toward the body's circulation. This leakage contributes to the overall systemic inflammation (). The inflammation in the intestines contributes to malabsorption of nutrients.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are molecules that form part of the coating of some bacteria normally found in the intestine. LPS produces a strong immune response. High LPS levels in the blood are a sign of "leakage of fecal mass syndrome."

The measurement of inflammation

Inflammation in people with HIV shows high levels of certain elements in the blood:

  • Interleukin 6It is involved both in terms of increase and decrease inflammation. It increases rapidly after exercise.
  • C-reactive proteinIt is thought to bind to damaged cells, attracting substances that will remove them. It is a measure of general application of inflammation. He rises quickly and dramatically during infections.
  • D-dimerIt is produced when the formation of blood clots break. It is a measure of general application of inflammation. It is also used to diagnose the formation of blood clots, especially blood clots in the deep veins or lungs
  • Cystatin CIt is mainly used as an indicator of kidney health. However, high levels of Cystatin C have been linked to heart disease, nerve problems and increase in death rates.

Treatment of inflammation HIV

Researchers are studying the anti-inflammatory drugs that have been used in other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and trying to learn from other studies of immune activation, inflammation and aging.

Another area of ​​research in HIV involves the bacterial gut environment. These bacteria can affect the results of various diseases. Interventions that affect these bacteria can be useful and that includes "probiotics" as acidophilus and other live cultures that stimulate the growth of bacteria in the gut.


Inflammation is a complex process. Acute inflammation is a normal part of the body's healing process. Chronic inflammation can damage the body and is associated with many chronic health problems and with normal aging.

HIV is an inflammatory and causes chronic inflammation disease. This can accelerate physical changes normally associated with aging.

Several possible treatments for chronic inflammation are being studied.

It would be interesting if you could follow the next post

Translated by Claudio Souza the originalHIV and Inflammationreviewed by Mara Macedoon April 14 2016

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