In Brazil the viral load tests have been left for annual surveys. I do not know if this is good!
The viral load measures the amount of HIV in your blood. There are different techniques for doing this:
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method uses an enzyme to multiply the HIV in the blood sample. After a chemical reaction that delivers the virus. Markers are measured and used to calculate the amount of virus. Roche and Abbott produce this type of test.
TheBDNA method(Branched DNA) combines a material which results in "light off" with the sample. This material connects with the HIV particles. The amount of light is measured and converted to a viral count. Bayer produces this test.
TheNASBA (nucleicumcidsequencebcultados the amplification method) amplifies viral proteins to derive a count. It is manufactured by bioMérieux.
Different testing methods often give different results for the same sample. Because the tests are different, you should always use the same type of test to measure your viral load over time.
viral loads are usually reported as HIV copies per milliliter of blood. The tests count reaches up to about 1 million copies and are always being improved to be more sensitive. The first test bDNA medium to 10.000 copies. Current tests to detect minimal copy 20. The ultrasensitive tests give used for research purposes to detect less than 5 copies of viral RNA per milliliter of blood.
The best result of the viral load test is "undetectable." This does not mean that there is no virus in your blood; it just means that there is no quantiddade enough virus to the test in use can find and count. With the first undetectable viral load testing was "" and meant to 9.999 copies! "Undetectable" depends on the sensitivity of the assay used in a blood sample.
The first viral load tests used all samples frozen blood. Good results were obtained using dry samples. This will reduce with freezers and shipping costs.
How the test is used?
The test is useful in several areas:
- To themedical researchersThe test showed that HIV is never "latent" but is always multiplying. Many people with no symptoms of AIDS and high CD4 cell counts also had high levels of viral loads. If the virus was latent, the test would not have found any particle of HIV in the blood.
- Onprognosis, Viral load can help predict how long someone will stay healthy. The higher the viral load of HIV, faster disease progression.
- For prevention,viral load predicts how easy it is to transmit HIV to someone else. The higher the viral load, the greater the risk of HIV transmission.
- For the management of therapy , The test shows that the treatment can control the virus throughout their replication cycle. Current guidelines (Fact Sheet 404) Suggest the measurement of the baseline (pretreatment) in viral load. Treatment is works if lowers the viral load level in at least 90 8% within weeks. The viral load should continue to drop to less than 40 6 copies within months (after I suggest this reading see this link and note that, among so many things, it is absurd to deny work to a person living with HIV or AIDS). The viral load should be measured within 2 to 8 weeks after the start of treatment or if treatment has been changed. It should be monitored every 6 months after patients with good adherence reach an undetectable viral load and are clinically stable in their treatment for 2 or 3 years. According to the guidelines, treatment failure is indicated by a confirmed viral load above 200 copies.
How are changes in viral load measured?
Repeated tests of the same blood sample may give results which differ by a factor of 3. This means that a significant change was a fallleast one thirdou
increasedover 3 timescompared with the results of the previous test. For example, a change from the 200.000 600.000 is within the normal variability of the test. A 50.000 10.000 to drop would be significant. The most important change is to reach an undetectable viral load.
Viral load changes are often described as "records" that change. This refers to scientific notation, which uses powers 10. For example, a 2-log drop is a drop of 102 or 100 times. A 60.000 600 to drop would be a 2-log drop.
Recently, researchers have observed that the viral load of many patients sometimes went from undetectable to a low level (typically less than 500) and then went back to being undetectable. These "blipes" does not indicate a failure on ART or that the virus is developing resistance.
What do the numbers mean?
There are numbers of "magic" for viral loads. We do not know how long you will stay healthy with any viral load. All we know so far is that the smallest achieved viral load is better off and seems to mean a longer and healthier life.
This section was edited and the link it misinformation will removdo
Treatment guidelines (see Fact Sheet 404) suggest that all people with HIV receive treatment. For patients with viral load above 100.000, there is urgency for treatment. As was confirmed by the Study Partner, no HIV infection among partners with complete viral suppression of viral load on treatment as prevention
Translator's note. I was forced to revise this paragraph because, unfortunately, not even in the sites "1º world" is no sense of responsibility to simply update a now mistaken paragraph that read: Some people may think que if viral Their load is undetectable, They can 't pass the HIV virus to another person. This is not true. There is no "safe" level of viral load. Although the risk is less, you can pass HIV to another person even if your viral load is undetectable.
Some people may think that if their viral load undetectable, they can not transmit HIV to someone else. This is not true. There is no "safe" level of viral load. Although the risk is less, you can transmit HIV to another person even if your viral load undetectable
There are problems with the viral load test?
There are some concerns with the viral load test:
- Only about 2% of HIV in your body is in the blood. The viral load test does not measure how much HIV is in body tissues such as lymph nodes, spleen or central nervous system or peripheral The levels of HIV in lymphoid tissue and semen fall when blood levels go down, but not at the same time or at the same rate.
- The viral load test results can be high if your body is fighting an infection or if you have just received an immunization (like the flu). You should not have blood taken for a viral load test within four weeks of any infection or immunization.
Translated by Claudio Souza's original Viral Load Tests
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