Diagnosing vulnerable points where HIV enters the female reproductive tract is like looking for a needle in a haystack. But scientists at Northwestern Center may have solved this challenge by creating a bright map of the first cells that appear to be infected with HIV.
Through an animal model (see remark at the end of the text), scientists have shown for the first time that HIV invades the cells of the entirefemale reproductive tract, From the labia to the ovaries, and not only the cervix, as previously thought.
"It is a technical achievement, which provides insights into the first transmission of events," said principal investigator Thomas Hope, professor of cell biology and molecular in University and College of Medicine Northwestern Feinberg.
"Now we know what are the areas vulnerable to HIV and can investigate why the virus entera particular location in the woman's vaginaand not any other? "
Transmission of HIV study was recently published inCenter of Medicine & Microbiology.
"If we prevent women from becoming infected, we have to stop the infection process exactly where the first cells are infected," said Thomas Hope.
"A week after the initial infection, there are hundreds of thousands of infected cells, and it is very difficult to stop this process. However, if you can stop this proceed at an early stage, then you have a chance. "
All transmission of HIV prevention strategies that has efficiently contagion of women, it is probably necessary to protect the entire reproductive tract of women, said Hope.
Hope and colleagues removed the entire core of the virus and inserted a firefly gene and another gene of a fluorescent protein to produce a "seeker" virus. Then they mixed this virus with real HIV. Bright light virus-infected cells revealed the infection sites with the real virus. Result: after being transmitted to the "host", true virus appeared in groups of twenty to thirty infected cells within 48 hours.
Without the new technology, "scientists have to investigate an innumerable amount of sections to see if they find the virus presence of evidence," said Hope.
In the research, scientists use and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) that is generally similar to HIV in rhesus monkeys.
The discovery will help scientists design a more effective vaccine to protect women from HIV.
"To obtain an effective vaccine, you need not only your weapons arsenal, they need to be in the right place at the right time," said Thomas Hope.
"If youenter in combat with a day late or do not bring weapons in sufficient quantities, it has been too late. Now we can see the gap in the armor of the virus. If you can attack immediately instead of later, you can stop the process of infection. "
Scientists at the University and School of Medicine Northwestern Feinberg found the primary point of transmission is the Th17 cell, a minority but important variant of the T cell population, in the first line of immune defense. It was not previously known since they were exhausted at the beginning of infection by SIV and HIV.
Within forty-eight hours after infection, scientists can see "evidence of the battle" between the virus and the cell Th17.
"We can see the infected and dead cells, infected cells are" food "(the process is called phagocytosis) by other cells to control them, andCellsWho kill themselves (apoptosis), "said Hope. "The virus is causing all these things, and that shows the battle between the virus and the infected host begins immediately after infection."
Translated from the original English'Fireflies' Light the Way to Understanding Female HIV Transmissionby Claudio Souza in 15 / 04 / 2016. Reviewed by Mara Macedo.
A brief observation Editor:Although I am an "interested party" in the results of this research, is not without me kind, or even repugnance for these experiments, I must note that it is proven that these amines have feelings, ethical notions and family formation. I will not mention what the cosmetics industry makes rabbits ... Among dolphins, the mother of a puppy dies, aunts orphans are in charge of caring for them as it is shown necessary. I remember clearly from a very early period of my childhood, in a program called Animal World, a group of journalists put in Antarctica and mounted equipment, began recording what happened there; and the occurrence was penguins on the run from a killer whale attack (that consider penguins as "delicatessen"And when they saw a group of" human "ahead, the group has turned and risked being devoured by the orcas to have to confront those who call themselves humans (just think of the way that seal pups are killed - a beating - to see that we are facing Gaia it was about this time that I began to think of a bitter drink that is this thing humanity call, which I had to take many cups ... (...) (...) (...)..
Going further, my wife told me, and I give thanks to Heaven if he could find the story, a story in which a particular monkey was separated from his "group" to serve as a player. Unfortunately, after many attempts, they finally find that one copy (...) was barren and he was put back into their previous environment. As he lived a good amount of sex, there was great production of testosterone and he turned noticeably more full-bodied, yet he was recognized by his brother and they embraced long as two brothers separated for a long time and were a time pain and unknowable miss, no news of each other. Think of yourself in this situation. Separated its unintentionally; longing, uncertainty (is living dead because the led I'll see you again? -? This is one side of raciocínio- who experienced premature or unexpected loss of a loved one may have an idea of what these two creatures felt and I suggest we let us start our search for decent alternatives and respect all living beings on earth, because everyone has a purpose and many of them are also paying heavy taxes which everyone pays the evolutionary path and I do not want to go beyond this point, because I know it would be incomprehensible to many what I would have to say ... Read Kardec - Particularly " The Genesis“).
I wonder what kind of scourge have submitted creatures that obviously is aware of what they are and, as a last example, the sheep, when they go to slaughter (...) cry.
This is correct? It can be done otherwise? It's fair? The fact that we are "the most intelligent species" Planet gives us this right? Or was this supposed privilege a kind of limits path in the use and abuse of life?
Honestly, I do not know. And I suggest that u click on the link for "See closely"
I did a quick translation of what is an "animal model" and put here, for the elucidation of all who come to this point of the page.
Aanimal model is not a animal "not" Humanoidhaving a disease or injury that resembles the human condition. These test conditions are often called Animal models of diseases.
The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate disease states in ways that would be inaccessible in a human patient, perform "procedures in a non-human animal implies a level of damage that would not be considered serious enough to inflict the" human ethics "(SIC).
In order to serve as auseful model, Modeling a disease should be similar in etiology (cause engine) and function equivalent to human. Animal models are used to learn more about the disease, its diagnosis and its treatment.
For example, analogs of behavioral anxiety or pain in laboratory animals can be used asTest screens for new drugs that could (may?) be used in treating these conditions in humans. A study of 2000 found that animal models have predictabilityhuman toxicity 71% of casesWith 63% to nonrodents and 43% to rodents.
Animal models of diseases can be spontaneously (naturally occurring in animals) or be induced by physical, chemical or biological. For example.
The increased knowledge of the non-human primate genomes and other mammals that are genetically close to humans is to allow the production of animals with genetically modified tissues, organs and even animal species that express human diseases, providing a more robust model of disease human in an animal model.
Animal models observed in the sciences of psychology and sociology are often calledbehavior in animal models.
In quantitative genetics, the termanimal modelIt is used to refer to statistical models in which the phenotypic variance is compartmentalized environmental, genetic and sometimes maternal effects. Such animal models are also known as "mixed-model".