Diagnosing vulnerabilities where HIV enters the female reproductive tract is like looking for a needle in the haystack. But scientists at the Northwestern Center may have solved this challenge by creating a bright map of the first cells that appear to be infected with the HIV virus.
Through a model animal (see note at the end of the text), scientists have shown for the first time that HIV invades cells throughout the body. female reproductive tract, from the vaginal lips to the ovaries, and not just the cervix, as previously thought.
"It's a technical achievement that provides insight into the first transmission events," said lead researcher Thomas Hope, a professor of cell and molecular biology at Northwestern Feinberg University and College of Medicine.
"We now know which areas are vulnerable to HIV and we can investigate why the virus enters a particular location in the woman's vagina and not on any other? "
Transmission of the HIV study was recently published in the Center of Medicine & Microbiology.
"If we're going to stop women being infected, we have to stop the infection process exactly where the first cells are infected," Thomas Hope said.
"One week after the initial infection, there are hundreds of thousands of infected cells, and it is very difficult to stop this process. However, if you can stop this proceed at the initial stage, then you have a chance. "
All strategies to prevent HIV transmission that effectively detain women are likely to need to protect the entire reproductive tract of women, Hope said.
Hope and colleagues removed the entire core of the virus and inserted a firefly gene and another gene from a fluorescent protein to generate a "research virus." So they mixed this virus with real HIV. Bright cells infected by the virus revealed the sites of infection with the actual virus. The result: after being transmitted to the "host", the true virus appeared in clusters of twenty to thirty infected cells within 48 hours.
Without the new technology, "scientists would have to investigate a myriad of sections to see if they would find evidence of the presence of the virus," Hope said.
In the research, the scientists use a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) that is usually analogous to HIV in rhesus monkeys.
The finding will help scientists design a more effective vaccine to protect women from HIV.
"To get an effective vaccine, you do not just need your arsenal of weapons, they need to be in the right place at the right time," Thomas Hope said.
"If you enter in combat with a day's delay or not bringing enough weapons, will have been too late. Now we can see the breach in the virus armor. If you can attack immediately instead of later, you can stop the infection process. "
Scientists at the University and Northwestern Feinberg Medical School have discovered the primary point of transmission is the Th17 cell, a minor but important variant of the T cell population, in the first line of immune defense. It was not previously known as they were depleted early in SIV and HIV infections.
Within forty-eight hours of infection, scientists can see "battle evidence" between the virus and the Th17 cell.
"We can see the infected and dead cells, infected cells are" food "(the process is called phagocytosis) by other cells to control them, and Cells They kill themselves (apoptosis), "said Hope. "The virus is causing all these things, and it shows the battle between the virus and the infected host begins immediately after infection."
Translated from the original into English 'Fireflies' Light the Way to Understanding Female HIV Transmission by Claudio Souza in 15 / 04 / 2016. Reviewed by Mara Macedo.
A brief observation Editor: Although I am a "stakeholder" in the results of these surveys, it does not fail to cause me, or even repugnance, to these experiments, I should note that it is proven that these animas have feelings, notions of ethics and family formation. I will not mention what the cosmetics industry does with rabbits ... Among dolphins, if a baby's mother dies, the orphan's aunts take care of them as long as it proves necessary. I remember, clearly, at a time very remote from my childhood, in a program called Animal World, that a group of journalists settled in Antarctica, and equipment assembled, began to record what happened there; and the occurrence was fleeing penguins from an attack of orcas (who consider penguins as "delicatessen"And when they saw a group of" human "ahead, the group has turned and risked being devoured by the orcas to have to confront those who call themselves humans (just think of the way that seal pups are killed - a beating - to see that we are facing Gaia it was about this time that I began to think of a bitter drink that is this thing humanity call, which I had to take many cups ... (...) (...) (...)..
Going further, my wife told me, and I give thanks to Heaven if he could find the story, a story in which a particular monkey was separated from his "group" to serve as a player. Unfortunately, after many attempts, they finally find that one copy (...) was barren and he was put back into their previous environment. As he lived a good amount of sex, there was great production of testosterone and he turned noticeably more full-bodied, yet he was recognized by his brother and they embraced long as two brothers separated for a long time and were a time pain and unknowable miss, no news of each other. Think of yourself in this situation. Separated its unintentionally; longing, uncertainty (is living dead because the led I'll see you again? -? This is one side of raciocínio- who experienced premature or unexpected loss of a loved one may have an idea of what these two creatures felt and I suggest we let us start our search for decent alternatives and respect all living beings on earth, because everyone has a purpose and many of them are also paying heavy taxes which everyone pays the evolutionary path and I do not want to go beyond this point, because I know it would be incomprehensible to many what I would have to say ... Read Kardec - Particularly " The Genesis“).
I wonder what kind of scourge have submitted creatures that obviously is aware of what they are and, as a last example, the sheep, when they go to slaughter (...) cry.
This is correct? It can be done otherwise? It's fair? The fact that we are "the most intelligent species" Planet gives us this right? Or was this supposed privilege a kind of limits path in the use and abuse of life?
Honestly, I do not know. And I suggest that u click on the link for "See closely"
I did a quick translation of what is an "animal model" and put here, for the elucidation of all who come to this point of the page.
Um animal model is not a animal "not" Humanoid which has a disease or injury that is similar to a human condition. These test conditions are often called animal models of diseases.
The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate disease states in ways that would be inaccessible in a human patient, performing "procedures on a non-human animal implies a level of harm that would not be considered severe enough to inflict" human ethics "(SIC).
In order to serve as a useful model, modeling a disease should be similar in etiology (cause mechanism) and function for the human equivalent. Animal models are used to learn more about the disease, its diagnosis and its treatment.
For example, behavioral analogues of anxiety or pain in laboratory animals can be used as Test screens for new drugs that could be used to treat these conditions in humans. An 2000 study found that animal models gave predictability of human toxicity in 71% of cases, with 63% for nonrodents and 43% for rodents.
Animals Models of diseases can be spontaneous (occurring naturally in animals), or be induced by physical, chemical or biological. For example.
Increased knowledge of the genomes of non-human primates and other mammals that are genetically close to humans is to allow the production of animals with genetically modified tissues, organs and even animal species that manifest human diseases, providing a more robust model of diseases in an animal model.
Animal models observed in the sciences of psychology and sociology are often called animal models of behavior.
In quantitative genetics, the term animal model is used to refer to statistical models in which the phenotypic variance is compartmentalized into environmental, genetic and sometimes maternal effects. Such animal models are also known as "mixed models".