Cholesterol Implements Immune System Memory!

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In a naive cell (left), the receivers (Blue) are arranged individually on the membrane. Pathogens (yellow) must bind to many receptors to activate the immune defense. In a memory cell (right) receptors are joined by more ... In a naive cell (left), the receivers (Blue) are arranged individually on the membrane. Pathogens (yellow) must bind to many receptors to activate the immune defense. In a memory cell (right) receptors are united ... more
In a naive cell (left), the receivers (Blue) are arranged individually on the membrane. Pathogens (yellow) must bind to many receptors to activate the immune defense. In a memory cell (right) receptors are joined by more ... In a naive cell (left), the receivers (Blue) are arranged individually on the membrane. Pathogens (yellow) must bind to many receptors to activate the immune defense. In a memory cell (right) receptors are united ... more

Message from the author: Although I have been keeping this site with news of all kinds, primarily related to HIV infection, either in the field of search for a cure, by finding treatment solutions with drug administration at longer intervals, perhaps one day, every twelve months, I spent a critical look at this site and found a flaw that I considered deplorable: There is a text that even set the immune system or, as in the text translated below immune system. It is with the text below I finally introduce this definition, I tried to make as clearly as possible and just did not get success, I believe, if you have obtained a positive result with regard to clearing, I could not set the entry "eukaryotes ". That entry is with a link to the text that "sets" and who is there understand my difficulty in clearing this obscure point, given the fact declaring me not able to destramar texts that are the domain of men and women whose reasoning is at a level that, for me, is unapproachable.

Having said that, I give the text for your consideration and I hope that I have been able to reach my goal which is to clarify, even if poorly, what it is, and how it works in basics ...

... The Immune System

Um Imune system is a collection of biological processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells.

It detects a wide variety of agents such as viruses or parasitic infestation of worms, and needs to distinguish harmful agents from the body's own healthy cells as well as tissues to function properly. Detection is complicated because pathogens can evolve rapidly, producing adaptations to avoid the immune system and allowing pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.

To survive this challenge, multiple mechanisms evolve and recognize and are able to neutralize pathogens. Even single-celled organisms like bacteria have enzyme systems that protect against viral infections.

Other underlying immune mechanisms have evolved in the old eukaryotes and remained in their modern descendants as plants, fish, reptiles and insects. These mechanisms include antimicrobial peptides called defensins, phagocytosis, and the complement system. Vertebrates like humans have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms.

The vertebrate immune system consists of many types of proteins, cells, organs and tissues that interact in an elaborate dynamic network. As part of this more complex immune response, the human immune system adapts over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently.

This adaptation process is referred to as "adaptive immunity" or "acquired immunity" and creates immune memory. Immune memory is created from a primary response to a specific pathogen, and provides an improved response to secondary encounters with that particular pathogen.

This acquired immunity process is the basis of vaccination.

Disorders of the immune system can result in disease. Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than it normally is, resulting in recurrent and life-threatening infections. Immunodeficiency may be the result of a genetic disease such as severe immunodeficiency combined or being produced by pharmacists or an infection such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that is caused by the HIV retrovirus.

In contrast, autoimmune diseases result from a hyperactive immune system that attacks normal tissues, as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Immunology encompasses the study of all aspects of the immune system that have great relevance to human health in disease prevention and containment. Further research in this field is expected to play a very important role in promoting health and treating diseases for the whole of humanity.

This text uses material from Wikipedia, Licensed under CC BY-SA

The memory of the human immune system is critical for the development of vaccines. Only if the body is able to recognize a pathogen with which it has already come into contact in the case of a second infection, the immune system is able to fight more effectively than it did the first time. The immunobiologist Prof. Dr Wolfgang Schamel of the Institute of Biology III University of Freiburg, and his colleagues have been able to demonstrate how the memory of the immune system performs its functions. Their findings have now been published in the immunity e Biological chemistry officer (JBC).

The immune system becomes familiar with a pathogen during an initial infection and understands that it must be combated. When the T-cell receptors in the immune system reach the same pathogen a second time, they are much more sensitive to them than during the first encounter, and so it takes less to activate the immune system to pathogens. There was a need to clarify why these receptors become more sensitive.

In 2011, the research group and Schamel a team led by Prof. Dr. Balbino Alarcon of the Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain, has found the answer to this fundamental question. In a publication in the official journal of immunity, they showed that the increase in sensitivity is caused by a grouping of Cells T In a naive cell that has not yet "found the pathogen", the receptors are cell membrane, pathogens so that the immune system reacts quickly. In a cell called a memory cell that resembles the pathogen, the receptors are arranged in clusters on the membrane. When a pathogen binds to a receptor in a group, all receptors within the group are activated simultaneously.

Thus, a large number of receptors need to be confronted with a large number of pathological agents in order to make them "well trained". This Immune system stay more sensitive.

Now, as reported in the journal JBC, a team of researchers in Freiburg under Schamel and Prof. Dr Rolf Schubert, Professor of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Freiburg, have demonstrated how a cell forms these groups of receptors.

The critical factors for the success of this effort were the results of Schamel's T-biochemistry research experiment with cell receptors, and Schubert's experience in the production of extracellular liposomes.

Collaboration between the two teams was made possible by a project funded by the Center for Biological Studies and Signaling BIOSs, a group of excellence at the University of Freiburg.

Dr. Eszter Molnár, a Schamel postdoctoral researcher, and Dr. Martin Holzer of Schubert's research group isolated the receptors and rebuilt the model on a synthetic membrane.

After a year and a half of work, the scientists made a breakthrough: They discovered that the composition of the lipids of a membrane is responsible for the organization groups of receptors.

The lipid composition of the cell of a "naive" (Translator's Note: Naive in this subject represents an immune system that has never been confronted, for example, with the measles virus; everyone knows that in general, there is only measles once in a lifetime, when one loses this naiveté) differs from a memory cell. Cholesterol is the key factor in this process, as it is present in high concentrations in one memory cell.

This higher concentration of cholesterol leads to the aggregation of receptors, because cholesterol binds them together as glue.

Schamel and Schubert are members of the excellence group of the Center for Biological Signaling and Studies of Freiburg BIOSS. Schamel is also a member of the Apemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine and the Center for the Freiburg Medical Center for Chronic University Immunodeficiency and director of the EU network SYBILLA, who also supported this project.

Official Reference: Immunity Journal of Biological Chemistry














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