There is life with HIV

Cholesterol implements the memory of the immune system?

In a naive cell (left), the receivers (Blue) are arranged individually on the membrane. Pathogens (yellow) must bind to many receptors to activate the immune defense. In a memory cell (right) receptors are joined by more ... In a naive cell (left), the receivers (Blue) are arranged individually on the membrane. Pathogens (yellow) must bind to many receptors to activate the immune defense. In a memory cell (right) receptors are united ... more
In a naive cell (left), the receivers (Blue) are arranged individually on the membrane. Pathogens (yellow) must bind to many receptors to activate the immune defense. In a memory cell (right) receptors are joined by more ... In a naive cell (left), the receivers (Blue) are arranged individually on the membrane. Pathogens (yellow) must bind to many receptors to activate the immune defense. In a memory cell (right) receptors are united ... more

Message from the author: Although I have been keeping this site with news of all kinds, primarily related to HIV infection, either in the field of search for a cure, by finding treatment solutions with drug administration at longer intervals, perhaps one day, every twelve months, I spent a critical look at this site and found a flaw that I considered deplorable: There is a text that even set the immune system or, as in the text translated below immune system. It is with the text below I finally introduce this definition, I tried to make as clearly as possible and just did not get success, I believe, if you have obtained a positive result with regard to clearing, I could not set the entry "eukaryotes ". That entry is with a link to the text that "sets" and who is there understand my difficulty in clearing this obscure point, given the fact declaring me not able to destramar texts that are the domain of men and women whose reasoning is at a level that, for me, is unapproachable.

Having said that, I give the text for your consideration and I hope that I have been able to reach my goal which is to clarify, even if poorly, what it is, and how it works in basics ...

... The Immune System

AImune systemis a collection of biological processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing of pathogens and tumor cells.

It detects a variety of agents such as viruses or worms parasitic infestation, and needs to distinguish harmful effects to the body's own healthy cells and tissues to function properly. Detection is complicated as pathogens can evolve rapidly, producing adaptations to avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.

To survive this challenge, multiple mechanisms evolve and recognize and are able to neutralize pathogens. Even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess enzyme systems that protect against viral infections.

Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient line of eukaryotesand they remained in their modern descendants as plants, fish, reptiles and insects. These mechanisms include antimicrobial peptides called defensins, phagocytosis, and the complement system. Vertebrates such as humans have defense mechanisms even more sophisticated.

The immune system of vertebrates consists of many types of proteins, cells, organs and tissues that interact in an elaborate and dynamic network. As part of this more complex immune response, the human immune system adapts over time to recognize particular pathogens more efficiently.

This adaptation process is referred to as "adaptive immunity" or "acquired immunity" and creates immunological memory. Immunological memory is created from a primary response to a specific pathogen, and provides an enhanced response to secondary encounters that same specific pathogen.

This process of acquired immunity is the basis for vaccination.

immune system disorders can result in disease. Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normally, resulting in recurrent and life-threatening infections. Immunodeficiency can result from genetic disease, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, or be produced by pharmaceuticals or an infection, such as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which is caused by the retrovirus HIV.

In contrast, autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune system attacks normal tissues as if they were foreign bodies. Common autoimmune diseases include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1 and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system that is highly relevant to human health in the prevention and containment of diseases. More research in this field is expected to play a very important role in promoting health and treatment of diseases for all mankind.

This text uses materialWikipedia, Licensed underCC BY-SA

The memory of the human immune system is critical for the development of vaccines. Only if the body is capable of recognizing a pathogen with which already contacted in the case of a second infection, the immune system is able to combat more effectively than did the first time. Prof. imunobiologista Dr Wolfgang Schamel III Biology Institute University of Freiburg, And his colleagues were able to demonstrate how the memory of the immune system exerts its functions. Their findings have now been published in the journalsimmunity, and Journal of Biological Chemistry (JBC).

The immune system becomes familiar with a pathogen during an initial infection and understands that it must be fought. When the receptors of the immune system T cells arrive at the same pathogen in a second time, they are much more sensitive about them than during the first meeting, and thus takes less activate the immune systempathogens. There was a need to clarify why these receptors become more sensitive.

In 2011, the research group and Schamel a team led by Prof. Dr. Balbino Alarcon of the Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain, found the answer to this fundamental question. In a publication in the Official Journal of immunity, they showed that the increased sensitivity is caused by a group ofCells Treceiving: In a naive cell not yet "found with the pathogen," the receivers are arranged individually incell membrane, Pathogens so that the immune system to react quickly. In a cell called "memory cell" reminiscent of the pathogen, the receivers are arranged in groups on the membrane. When a pathogen binds to a receptor of a group, all receivers within the group are activated simultaneously.

Thus, a large number of receivers have to be confronted with a large number of pathogens, so as to make it "well-trained". This causes theImmune systemstaymore sensitive.

Now, as reported in JBC journal, a team of researchers in Freiburg under Prof. Schamel and Dr Rolf Schubert, Professor of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Freiburg, were able to demonstrate how a cell receptors form these groups.

The critical factors for the success of this effort were the result of biochemical research experience on T Schamel withcell receptorsAnd Schubert's experience in the production of extracellular liposomes.

The collaboration between the two teams was made possible thanks to a project funded by the Center for Studies and Biological Signalling BIOSs, A group of excellence at the University of Freiburg.

Dra. Eszter Molnár a postdoctoral researcher at Schamel, and Dr. Martin Holzer of the Schubert research group isolated the receptor and rebuilt the model in a synthetic membrane.

After a year and a half of work, scientists have achieved a breakthrough: They found that the lipid composition of a membrane is responsible for organizing groupsreceptors.

The lipid composition of the cell of a "naive" (Translator's Note: Naive this theme is an immune system that has never been confronted, for example, the measles virus, everyone knows that, in general, only have measles once in your life, when you lose this naiveté) differs from a memory cell. Cholesterol is the key factor in this process, as it is present in high concentrations in amemory cell.

This higher concentration of cholesterol leads to aggregation of receptors, because cholesterol joins the like glue.

Schamel and Schubert are members of the group of excellence of the Center for Studies and Biological Signaling Freiburg BIOSs. Schamel is also a member of Apemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine and the Center for the Freiburg University Medical Center Chronic Immunodeficiency and director of the EU network Sybilla, who also supported this project.

 

Journal reference:Immunity   Journal of Biological Chemistry

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