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Infectious Diseases

What is cryptosporidiosis?


It is a disease caused in the intestine by a parasite called cryptosporidium. Many people are exposed to this agent, but those with healthy immune system usually gets rid of the parasite without showing any symptoms or become ill. Your doctor may request a stool test to find out if you have this disease. There is another condition called cryptococcal meningitis, completely different from cryptosporidiosis.


What are the signs of cryptosporidiosis?

cryptosporidiosis carriers typically have watery diarrhea for more than 4 times per day. Weight loss, nausea, vomiting, colic, stomach pain and fever are also common symptoms that may develop slowly. If you are having diarrhea for a long time, it's likely you're losing fluids important vitamins and minerals necessary for life. If you have chronic diarrhea or any of the other symptoms, you should see your doctor immediately.

Cryptosporidiosis be prevented?

Cryptosporidiosis is very contagious, it is difficult to avoid contact with the germ. The best way to prevent this disease is always clean, wash hands frequently (especially after intercourse and after going to the bathroom) and avoid the presence of feces in the hands and mouth.
You can contract cryptosporidiosis water you drink, so it is advisable to take filtered water or boil it before drinking.

There is as it is cryptosporidiosis?

There is no medicine that kills the germ completely, but there are some that that help control diarrhea. The most commonly used drug in cases of cryptosporidiosis is spiramycin and paromomycin. Azithromycin can also be helpful. An experimental drug currently being tested against cryptosporidiosis is letrazuril. Sometimes symptoms of cryptosporidiosis may decrease without medication. It is not known exactly why this happens; It may be related to improvements in the immune system, due to antiretroviral drugs, such as AZT, or other unknown causes. (Editor's note: Tristes were those times in the early 90 ...)

Some have shown to be able to control diarrhea through changes in diet. People with cryptosporidiosis often avoid dairy products (milk, cheese, ice cream), food and beverages containing caffeine (coffee, chocolate, tea, soft drinks) and fatty foods.
Most often, medicines in pharmacies against diarrhea are not able to control this type of diarrhea and may even worsen it. Drugs available by prescription diarrhea are hydrochloride and atropine diphenoxylate and loperamide hydrochloride.

What is microsporidiosis?


It is also a disease caused by a parasite in people with HIV. It is difficult for your doctor to find out if you have the disease or not. Normally this requires him to take a test called a biopsy, in which a small sample of the bowel wall is removed and examined.

What are the microsporidiosis signs?

People with severe diarrhea may have microsporidiosis, as in the case of cryptosporidiosis. If your eyes itch all the time or light-sensitive, can be a signal microsporidiosis eyes. microsporidiosis can also infect the liver, kidney, muscle and brain.

Microsporidiosis be prevented?

No one knows for sure how people contract the microsporidiosis. Therefore, it is important to take precautions such as washing and cooking good food, drink clean water and use a condom during sexual intercourse.

There is as it is microsporidiosis?

As for cryptosporidiosis, there is no proven treatment for microsporidiosis, unless the medicines for reducing diarrhea. Albendazole is an experimental drug available for use in clinical research at the University of New York and is available in Brazil. Albendazole demonstrates efficiency by at least half of the patients. Other medications used against microsporidiosis are paromomycin, metronidazole and itraconazole (against microsporidiosis eyes).

What are the side effects of treatments against cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis?

  • Paramomycin: nausea, reversible kidney damage, possible hearing loss.
  • azithromycin:nausea, possible loss of hearing (very rare).
  • itraconazole:nausea, headache, stomach pain. Provided free of charge in Brazil.
  • Metronidazole: stomach pain, fever, nausea. Provided free of charge in Brazil.
  • albendazole:hepatic toxicity, neutropenia. Provided free of charge in Brazil.

More Info: "Guide Conducts clinics for STD / AIDS", the National STD / AIDS, Ministry of Health

This material was published in Brazil by the Brazilian Interdisciplinary AIDS Association (ABIA) from the series "TREATMENT ISSUES, FACT SHEET - GMHC."

Medical Review: Dr. Rosana del Bianco, infectious disease II Emilio Ribas de São Paulo and Dr. Varella Drausio..


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