The complicated and delicate process that HIV "uses" to put us sick?
the first cases almost thirty years after the documentedAIDS, we still do not know exactly how HIV destroys the immune system (!!!). But inflammation - sustained immune - is seen now as a key factor in the process in which embody their damage in the same way as the fire under the tundra. The survey is reviewing the way the virus is understood - and how it can be fought more effectively and forcefully.
The untreated HIV infection is clearly shown since the tip epidemic that sooner or later, HIV easily causes a massive loss of cells and CD4 immune defenses of the human organism. If CD4 cell count falls to sufficiently low levels and HIV, unfortunately, does so with ease, the body becomes prey to opportunistic infections and cancers that the immune system, previously healthy, can defeat efficiently and quietly for the most of the time.
Perhaps surprisingly, yet, not fully understood, the processasHIV depletes CD4 cells. In addition, as antiretroviral therapy has allowed people living with HIV has been able to keep themselves are healthy with improved white blood cell counts with CD4 receiver in all those which are treated and have an adhesion of at least ninety five percent (in truth my membership is one hundred percent, but can still have their annihilated life overwhelming way, people's lives are at risk of contracting or opportunistic infections, such as a cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV) which can cause the person to lose the vision and ability to see becomes inferior in quality and accuracy, and that can leave you blind, completely, unpardonable way and still is, for example, Pneumocystis pneumonia ( CFP), problems such as cardiovascular disease (I, Cláudio Souza, suffered two pulmonary embolisms, one of which was mass and kidney disease generally installed. the toxicities of trat antiretroviral ning - such as increased cholesterol - not fully explain such complications: HIV infection itself is now understood to significantly increase the metabolic risks.
Several emerging concepts can shed some light on these issues. Inflammation - theresulting prolonged immune activation state of the immune system of the ongoing battle with the virus- seems to be a key factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders (my pulmonary embolisms were triggered by these triggers). The survey also revealed that the digestive tract may play a much larger role in the progression of HIV disease than previously realized and, in fact, may be one of the strongest sources of immune activation.
early infection and intestines
The course of HIV infection follows largely as a characteristic pattern for most people. During the first few weeks - Acute infection - the immune system has not yet learned to respond to the new intruder. HIV levels are high throughout the body and CD4 the number of cells in the blood plasma is established drops sharply. Now tests suggest that, just looking at the CD4 cells in the blood, which may have underestimated the global extent of this early fall. Only a small fraction (2%) of the organism, the cells are effectively CD4 found in circulating blood. Most live in lymph nodes (these include the 'glands' you can sometimes feel in the neck and groin when you have an infection) in the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALTNote to translator,GALTis an acronym in English for the text marked in red above that, in English, is defined as:Gut-associated lymphoid tissue), Where immune cells are present as groups lining the entire length of the intestinal mucous membranes of other organs exposed to foreign substances such as the lungs, and the genitalia. The researchers observed a massive loss of CD4 memory cells in this tissue of the intestines quickly after infection. (Note:. If I left here only the text with memory cells that would not be understood in its dramatic importance and severe loss that is for us, people living with HIV or AIDS I searched the net and found on Wikipedia the following definition:
memory T cellsare derived from other T lymphocytes that have learned to respond to a particular invader, for example, a species of bacterium, fungus or type or even aallergenand were successful in eliminating them. They go on to live for many years and can be re-enabled for faster response to an invader similar to that fought in the past. For example, a lymphocyte that has been activated to combat measles (by direct contact or byvacina) Can follow combating new invasions by the measles virus ensuring lifelong immunity to that individual.At the end of this text you will find a link that leads directly to the entire page of Wikipedia
Danny Douek, a researcher atUS National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases(NIAID), closely studied the process:
"Once we thought we were lost CD4 cells slowly but surely over the course of the disease. But we found that most of the T cells outside memory - which is most CD4 cells in an adult - is lost extremely quickly. " About 60% of memory cells may be infectadose, most people may disappear within the first two weeks of infection (...).
Ideally, the treatment of HIV might need protection against both pacing and immunodeficiencies. It is likely that this is a complex goal, and the consensus is that considerable research is still needed.
In Stripping (removal of internal layers of less virus) with tissue CD4 many cells, HIV also causes structural damage to the intestinal tissue, and immune to the lymph nodes where many immune cells normally reside. Recent studies have found that these tissues have become marked with collagen during infection aguda.2
Researchers have speculated that such damage interferes with the normal cell growth and cellular interactions, limiting the ability of the immune system cells totally regenerate CD4 lost in early infection. Intestines and tissue damage can also contribute to the inflammation that helps to drive the later stages of HIV disease - a point back a.3
Chronic infection: Why CD4 cells die?
After intense activity weeks of acute infection, the body begins to produce antibodies and immune cells that specifically target HIV. During this period, (known as seroconversion), decrease viral load levels and CD4 cell count returns to near normal levels. At this point, the disease enters a prolonged phase known as chronic infection. (This is all that can be said about "chronic disease" - AIDS is a syndrome that has little or nothing to do with chronic disease ... AIDS does have everything to do with Disabilities Acquired Immune - The AIDS itself is not a chronic disease)
In the early years of the epidemic, the virus was even thought to sleeping during the long period of chronic infection. This proved to be completely wrong: the advent of viral load testing in the mid-proved that the virus continues to infect actively CD4 cells and other from the time of infection on, producing millions of new copies of every day.
It is the virus directly who kills CD4 cells? It is easy to assume that should be the main reason for the eventual fall of CD4 counts. But the truth is more complex. Considerably less than 1% CD4 circulating cells are actually infected with HIV during chronic infection - too few to explain the overall loss - and millions of new CD4 cells are created every day. In recent years, researchers have discovered other possible means by which HIV leads to loss of CD4 cells. These include toxic viral proteins, flashes infected cells, which can kill uninfected cells in the so-called "bystander effect". HIV can also trigger the cells to 'suicide' in a process called apoptosis,or cell death programada.4
Other mechanisms are likely to be at work as well, including - ironically - the immune system's own response to HIV. The virus can infect only activated CD4 cells - those that are "connected" to fight infection. In other words, the very act of going into action against the virus, CD4 cells become themselves targets for infection. This paradox some degree is inevitable, since the activation of immune cells is an essential part of the immune function. However, there is growing evidence that prolonged and excessive immune - inflammation - underlie much of the ongoing damage by disease HIV.5
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