This blog is about a painful subject for many: AIDS .... Or HIV infection and how they affect the immune system.
I have found a generous source of material to be translated and in fact I have translated more than 50% of it and that is why I am starting to publish because I want to try to keep a specific block on the subject and maybe I can , Because Penny Lane is in a good phase of her life and is trying to make some money. Here she is voluntary and we have to respect her priorities.
Well, the topic is the immune system and I'll create a specific tag and category for this topic, and if Penny Lane runs these days, that's no problem either, because I'll link (this verb is new) Opportunistic Diseases (This link opens in another tab), which take advantage of the exhaustion of the immunological low from the fall give numbers of CD4 cells per milliliter of blood, remembering that the count of a "normal" person oscillates between 50 / 600 and 1200 CD4 cells by Same blood measure that is the focus of my "new work".
O immune Is an integrated network of cells, tissues and organs that protects the body against pathogens, such as disease-causing agents such as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi and toxins. The immune system works against infectious agents and sometimes the body's own cells.
Each cell in a person's body carries a set of surface proteins unique to that individual (except for identical twins who share the same code) and these markers identify the cell as "self." This set of proteins is known as the major histocompatibility complex. The prefix 'histo' means fabric. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is sometimes used interchangeably with HLA, referring to Human leukocyte antigen.
Non-specific barriers For foreign organisms include skin, mucous membranes, eyelashes, stomach acid, saliva and tears. The cells and mechanisms of the innate immune system include phagocytes (called "comer" cells that absorb and degrade foreign microorganisms), natural and complementary killer cells. Innate reactions are immediate, but do not confer persistent protective immunity against a pathogen. These cells may limit the spread of pathogens, but many pathogens have developed mechanisms that lead to the overthrow.
Specific or acquired immunity occurs when lymphocytes develop antibodies against a particular pathogen. Active natural immunity is a result of infection, with the antibody marking the substance for destruction (the chickenpox, for example, always aware of the risk of zoster, especially after the 50 years, as I, Claudio Souza passed and in the ophthalmic branch). Artificial active immunity may come from vaccines made from infectious agents or from small portions of microbes. When some lymphocytes are activated, they become "memory" cells, providing a specific, faster and longer lasting response to a particular pathogen when it is found again. (Tim Brown's immune system has been completely destroyed through chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or even the conjunction of both)
An antigen is any substance capable of eliciting an immune response and the antigens resting on the surface of the pathogen. Each antigen has distinctive markers called epitopes. As the MHC in the Epitope Is foreign, the body's bone-defending cells are alerted and are able to organize an immune response.
The purpose of the immune system is to recognize and resist any organism that does not carry the "own" pattern of markers of that organism. This has a protective effect which is usually beneficial with some exceptions, especially in the case of organ transplants. Failures of the immune system include allergic responses (hypersensitivity to a substance) and the development of Autoimmune diseases (Eg, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis), in which the immune system attacks its own cells.
When the immune system is less active than it needs to be, infection can "invade" the body and establish infectious conditions, for example, leading the body to a certain degree of illness that can be extinguished in a few days, as may be the case Influenza, or even death, if nothing is done to aid the organism taken by certain Etiological agents. If this occurs recurrently, the resulting condition is called immunodeficiency, which can be acquired, as in the case of AIDS, an acronym for an expression in English, which we Brazilians love to adopt since we have such a poor language that in AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) or AIDS. The various cell types of the immune system are distributed throughout the body and play different roles; Many move on the body as needed.
This will be covered in another article.
When the article is published, we'll put a link more or less here.