ART is a GREAT VICTORY. BUT WE NEED MORE EFFICIENT THERAPIES AND BETTER QUALITY OF LIFE
The development of anti-retroviral therapy, a combination of drugs which prevents the replication of HIV in the body, become the treatment of this infection. What was once a death sentence, now it is a chronic condition with which people can live with for decades.
But this therapy have disadvantages. There are side effects including kidney problems, decreased bone density, and gastrointestinal problems. And if a person stops the treatment, even missing some doses, the level ofvirusthe body is able to return quickly.
Researchers at Rockefeller University, along with colleagues at the University of Cologne, are developing a new type of antibody-based treatment that can provide a better long-term strategy for HIV control.
Recent findings from an 1 phase clinical trial, published in 5 in MayScience; offer new insights into how antibodies functions.
"This study provides evidence that a single dose of an antibody stimulates an immune response in patients', allowing them to make new or improved antibodies against the virus," he explains to Schoofs, a post-doctoral and one of the first authors of the study. Schoofs is a member of the Molecular Immunology Laboratory, led by Michel Nussenzweig, Zanvil A. Cohn and Ralph M. Steinman teacher, who is the senior author of the study.
"We reported last year, this treatment may significantly reduce the amount of virus that is present in someone's blood," Dr Schoofs adds, "but we wanted to follow patients for a long period of time to the study of how their immune systems behave adaptation to the new therapy. "
Neutralization of a deadly virus
The tests with aamolecule 3BNC117were conducted at University Hospital RockefellerA molecule 3BNC117
The molecule used in research, 3BNC117, is called as a broadly neutralizing antibody because it has the ability to fight a wide range of HIV strains. Johannes Scheid, a student in the laboratory the Nussenzweig, had isolated est molecule several years of a patient infected with HIV with which the immune system had an exceptional capacity to neutralize HIV in the blood by preventing the virus to infect and destroy a specific kind of immune cells called CD4 cells, cells command the immune response in HIV patients. The destruction of CD4 cells is an AIDS brand.
Early studies showed that 3BNC117 can neutralize more than 80 percent of HIV strains that are found all over the planet. The researchers therefore hypothesized that introducing this antibody (3BNC117) in patients to help fight the virus better.
The trial included 15 patients who had high viral loads and twelve other patients whose virus levels is being controlled with Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). Most of the trial were treated at the University Hospital Rockefeller. Patients received a single infusion at a dose of 3BNC117 molecule (which is the antibody) and monitor these patients outpatients for a period of six months.
New antibodies equal to those that were infused were created by the organism that received them
The researchers found that 14 of 15 patients had high levels of the virus in the time they received the antibody were able to create new antibodies same as those that were infused at baseline and make new antibodies that were capable of neutralizing a number of different strains of HIV.
"It usually takes several years for the body to start making good antibodies against HIV," says Schoofs. "Therefore, there may still be a better effect later on, especially if the patient has received more than one dose of 3BNC117 (the antibody)."
The next step of this research to test the 3BNC117 antibody in combination with other antibodies that also attack demonstrates specificity to HIV, to determine whether it is possible to generate an antiretroviral even stronger response can be generated. The researchers also carry out a phase 2 patients receiving antiretroviral therapy that will be switched to treatment with the antibody.
Exploring the function of an antibody
In the companion study, (I followed the link and the matter is paid and dear. Can not afford it ... I'm very sorry)published that dealt with the same aspect in the journal, the researchers wanted to be able to find a way to determine what new and possible benefits of treatment with 3BNC117 might have on antiretroviral therapy.
They examined the results of the clinical trial, and used a mathematical model of HIV DYNAMICS to predict how the patient would reduce HIV levels in the blood with 3BNC117 who did nothing more than neutralize HIV in the blood and block new infections . Their analysis showed that the neutralization of the virus by itself does not explain the sharp drop in levels of virus seen in patients, leading scientists to suspect that there must be another component to the effectiveness of the antibody.
Working in a rat model, the researchers saw evidence that 3BNC117 was able to trigger the immune cells and accelerate the fight against HIV-infected cells.
"This shows that the antibody can not only put pressure on the virus, but can also shorten the survival of infected cells," says first author Ching-Lan Lu, on a visit to the student lab of Dr. Nussenzweig. "Our results explain why the post-exposure prophylaxis" short-term treatment after exposure to HIV to reduce infection "with antibodies is more effective than HAART in our models with guinea pigs."
They concluded that, in addition, there is the potential property could make it possible to address a major obstacle to the cure of HIV: stop the ability of HIV to establish a latent reservoir soon after infection and thus to hide the body and flee treatments. A clinical follow-up study is underway today at Rockefeller to assess whether the supply of drugs with antibodies to patients receiving antiretroviral therapy can help reduce the output of HIV from its reservoirs or change these reservoirs of HIV.
6 May 2016
Translated by Original Claudio Souza inAntibody therapy opens the door to new treatment of HIV potentialreviewed by Mara Macedo in 13 May 2016
More information:T. Schoofs et al 1 HIV-therapy with monoclonal antibody 3BNC117 raises the host immune responses against HIV-1,Science(2016).DOI: 10.1126 / science.aaf0972
C.-L. Lu et al. Enhanced clearance of cells infected with HIV-1 by broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in vivo,Science(2016).DOI: 10.1126 / science.aaf1279
Provided by:Rockefeller University