#soropositivoorg: The rate of new HIV diagnoses among US homosexuals is 44 times higher than in other populations

Michael Carter

HIV infection has a disproportionately greater impact on homosexuals and men who have sex with men in the US, according to data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Surveillance (CDC).

The researchers estimated that the rate of new HIV infections among homosexuals and bisexuals is 44 times higher than in other men, and about 40 times higher than in women.

Recently analyzed data have also shown that syphilis rates are up to 71 times higher among homosexual and bisexual men compared to other population groups.

"It is clear that we will not be able to stop the HIV epidemic in the US until all infected communities, along with health authorities around the world, prioritize the needs of homosexual and bisexual men with HIV prevention efforts," commented Dr Kevin Fenton of the CDC.

Homosexuals are responsible for 48% of the million HIV infections in the US. The only group in which new diagnoses are increasing is that of men who have sex with men, which in 2006 included 53% of all HIV infections in the country.

CDC data, presented at the 2010 National STI Prevention Conference, showed that there were about 522 to 989 new infections by 100 000 homosexual and bisexual men each year, compared with 12 by 100 000 among other men and 13 by 100 000 among women.

This means that the rate of new HIV infections was about 44 times higher among homosexual and bisexual men than in other groups.

The syphilis rate was calculated from 73 to 91 cases by 100 000 in homosexual and bisexual men, about 48 times higher than the rate of two by 100 000 observed in other men, and 71 times higher than one per 100 000 observed in women.

CDC data also revealed the unequal impact of HIV infection on different populations of homosexual and bisexual men.

The largest number of new HIV infections among homosexuals in 2006 involved Caucasian homosexuals (12 230), followed by black ethnic men (10 130).

Among Caucasian homosexuals, most of the new infections were in 30-year-old men (4670), followed by those between 40 and 49 (3740).

A different age profile was observed in black homosexuals. The new infections were disproportionately located between 13 and 29 (5200).

The researchers found that the prevalence of HIV infection among homosexuals in some urban centers reached 25%. Additionally, about 50% of men were unaware of their infection, and this number increased to 80% among some younger homosexual populations.

The CDC believes that the complex interaction of various factors is increasing HIV infection among homosexuals.

Most important is the high prevalence of HIV among homosexuals. This means that each sexual encounter increases the risk of exposure to the virus. Researchers believe that homosexual relationships between black youth and older men may also lead to increased risk.

The large number of undiagnosed homosexual infections are also believed to contribute to the spread of HIV.

Complacency is also advanced as an explanation. The CDC stated that this is the case for most young homosexuals who have not “personally experienced the severity of the first HIV epidemic. AIDS. "

However, this type of reasoning does not explain the large number of new HIV infections among men between 30 and 50 years.

Advances in HIV treatment have led, according to the CDC's perception, some homosexual men to develop the “false belief” that “HIV is no longer a serious health issue.”

The difficulty in having safe sex throughout life it is also suggested as a contributing factor.

Homophobia and other forms of discrimination, which may prevent men from accessing prevention and health care services, are also, according to the CDC, contributing factors to the spread of HIV among homosexuals, such as high levels of use. drugs.

“O risco de transmissão do VIH através de sexo anal receptivo é muito maior que o risco de transmissão através de outras actividades sexuais, e alguns homens homossexuais e bissexuais confiam em estratégias de prevenção que podem ser menos eficazes que o uso consistente do condom”, comentou o CDC.

They stressed that many of the syphilis infections in homosexuals are probably transmitted via oral sex.

"There is no single or simple solution to reducing rates of HIV and syphilis infection among gay and bisexual men," said Fenton. "We need to intensify prevention efforts that are as diverse as the community itself." Solutions for gay and bisexual youth are urgent so that HIV does not inadvertently become a rite of passage for every new generation of homosexuals. ”

09 / 07 / 2010 - Research in São Paulo indicates that among HIV-positive people, HPV is more likely to turn into cancer

NEWS AGENCY AIDS |

AIDS | T-SHIRT | SEXUALLY COMMUNICABLE DISEASES | HPV

09/07/2010

09/07/2010 – 18h30

The human papillomavirus (HPV), a virus that can cause cervical cancer in women or cancer in men's penis or anus, is more harmful among men with HIV, according to a study conducted at the Reference and Training Center on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS of the State of São Paulo (CRT).

According to research conducted by urologist Roberto José Carvalho da Silva, as a doctorate, the oncogenic HPV16 virus, that is, those most likely to be transformed into tumors, presented three times higher frequency of infection in the seropositive men analyzed.

About 144 men of 18 and 70 years old participated in the analysis, being 72 HIV positive and seronegative 72, partners of women with pathology associated with HPV.

Men who were on antiretroviral treatment and with viral load do HIV high (more than 1000 copies of the virus per cubic millimeter of blood) and T cell count CD4 low (less than 200 cells) showed higher acquisition rates and persistence of infection by HPV.

The research was guided by Professor Luisa Lina Villa and defended last March at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo.

Research method - Penile cells were collected by smears for the diagnosis of HPV by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). They were followed for 180 days to assess the persistence, acquisition and elimination of DNA from HPV.

More about HPV

O ACCUMULATED CONDILOMA is an injury to the genital region caused by HPV. The disease is also known as rooster crest, fig tree or crested horse.

Signs and Symptoms - O HPV It causes cauliflower-like warts of varying sizes on the genitals. It may also be related to the appearance of some cancers, especially in the cervix, but also in the penis or anus. However, not every case of infection with HPV will cause cancer.

Forms of Contagion - Infection by HPV it is very common. This virus is transmitted by direct contact with contaminated skin, even when it has no visible lesions. Transmission may also occur during oral sex. There is also the possibility of contamination through objects such as towels, underwear, toilets or bathtubs.

Prevention - There is no safe form of 100% prevention as the HPV it can even be transmitted through a towel or other object. It is estimated that the use of CONDOM can spread between 70% and 80% of transmissions, and its effectiveness is not greater because the virus may be housed elsewhere, not necessarily on the penis, but also on the skin of the pubic, perineum and anus.

New is the arrival, still in 2006, of the first vaccine capable of preventing infection by the two most common types of HPV, 6 and 11, responsible for 90% of warts, and also the two most dangerous types, 16 and 18, responsible for 70% of cervical cancer cases. Still under discussion the values ​​for dose (3 doses), for the Brazilian private market.

Most of the time men do not manifest the disease. Still, they are transmitters of the virus.

As for women, it is important for them to have a cervical cancer screening exam, known as a “Pap smear” or a preventive exam, regularly.

Treatment - The treatment of HPV It can be done by several methods: chemical, chemotherapeutic, immunotherapeutic and surgical. Most of them will destroy the diseased tissue.

Source: STD DEPARTMENT, AIDS and Viral Hepatitis of the Ministry of Health

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Hair Loss - Bad between the sexes

Barely between the sexes, hair loss is common in both men and women. Get to the root of the problem and check out treatment tips

By Ligia Kogos

The complaint of hair loss is one of the most frequent for dermatologists, both men and women. Female hormone oscillations and factors such as stress, seborrhea, unbalanced diets, ovarian cysts, menopause, endocrine disorders, postpartum period, post-surgery, anorexia nervosa, use of hormonal implants, anabolic steroids, among others, can be known. cause weakening of the hair and frank decrease of hair volume. In addition, we have the traumatic chemical and physical causes such as straightening, reflexes, discoloration, perms and even the ponytails that pull the scalp too much!

In men, the dreaded baldness (or androgenic alopecia) begins from the top of the head, especially in the well-known region of the "inlets," progressing back and forth. It is closely linked to hormonal and genetic factors, which result in the progressive thinning of the wires, which weaken until they disappear. Male hormones, starting production in boys around the age of 13, if caught in large quantities by the "receptors" (hormone-hungry structures present in the scalp and genetically inherited) are gradually weakening the hair strands. The severity of baldness will depend on this genetic burden, more or less receptors.

Other factors such as stress, diseases that affect the general condition such as cancer, tuberculosis, AIDS, malnutrition, can cause men and women to lose their hair, in addition to chronological natural aging. But the most common cause of classic baldness is even the association between hormonal action and genetics. It is hoped that in the near future gene therapy will definitely solve this problem. Just wait a little longer…

Treatment

The treatments aim to return, even partially, the volume of lost hair and also prevent future hair loss.

Oral Finasteride is one of the most commonly used for both men and women, where heredity and hormones are involved. Capsules of amino acids, proteins, B vitamins and folic acid are also used.

Local lotions, with vasodilating cocktails, anti-hormones, female hormones such as estrogens, anti-inflammatory corticosteroids are also very useful in restoring some vitality to the hair and recovering much of it, depending on the degree of involvement.

Anti-dandruff shampoos (containing pyroctone olamine, zinc pyrithione, sulfur, sulfacetamide) contribute to a good result. Another option is drug injections directly into the scalp, which are also used in acute and resistant cases of hair loss, especially in women.

Surgical solutions are also much sought after, especially by men with significant degrees of baldness. They are called transplants and flap rotation surgeries.

General measures that help to save hair:

Do not smoke, have any physical activity, stay within reasonable weight, have vegetables, fruits, vegetables and protein in the diet, moderate the amount of sugars and fats, control stress. Another tip is to be very careful about deceptive, expensive, unscientific treatments. Always seek a dermatologist for guidance.

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23 / OCTOBER / 09

In Lisbon, 3% of TB cases are extremely drug-resistant

In Lisbon, 3% of TB cases are extremely drug-resistant
Derek Thaczuk, Thursday, August 21, 2008

Portuguese researchers reported last week, at the XVII International Conference on AIDS, in Mexico City, that 3% of the cases of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed between 2003 and 2007, in one of the largest hospitals in Lisbon, were extremely resistant to drugs, with a strong correlation between HIV infection or Hepatitis C and this form tuberculosis.

The drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB XDR), which was first described in 2006 is defined as being resistant to at least the two first-line drugs - rifampin and isoniazid - as well as either injectable second-line used to treat TB (amikacin, kanamycin or Capreomycin) and fluoroquinolone.

XDR-TB has emerged on a large scale in South Africa, often as a result of transmission through the local health care where they join a large number of HIV positive patients and vulnerable.

A poster presented at the International AIDS Conference described the cases observed d XDR-TB in the infectious diseases ward of the Curry Cabral Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, and between 2003 2007. For this retrospective study, we analyzed all positive cultures from TB and was collected during that period of time, Having been conducted additional testing of drug resistance, validated reference laboratories.

The study included 595 patients with culture-confirmed TB over the 5-year period, 68 (11,4%) of whom had multi-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and 17 (2,9%) had XDR-TB. Of the 17 cases of XDR-TB, 82% were men, with an average of 41.7 years, 65% were Caucasian and 35% were black. The average length of hospital stay was 61 days. 65% were HIV positive, with an average CD4 116 cells / mm3. Forty percent of XDR-TB cases were medicated with antiretroviral therapy, 52% had hepatitis C. There was a history of TB in 64% of cases and in 63% there was a previous diagnosis of MDR-TB.

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from sputum in 88% of patients in 6% in gastric juice and 6% in bronchoalveolar lavage. All patients had pulmonary manifestations (with caves 76%) and two had extra-pulmonary manifestations (ganglion). The average time to achieving persistent negative cultures was 49,4 days.

For resistance to first-line drugs, 82% were resistant to all 4 drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide), 12% of these three drugs and two 6%. Over the were resistant to all second-line injectable drugs and fluoroquinolones. There were two deaths. Encouragingly, of the patients (53%) samples was discharged after persistent negative cultures.

The researchers concluded that "XDR-TB was, in our study, an infection associated not only with HIV but also with HCV, intravenous drug abuse and also with the worst socio-economic conditions." (The detailed analyzes of socio-economic factors of IDUs were not available) also stated that although deaths due to XDR-TB "were not very high ... our data reinforce the need for better surveillance and effective treatment to all patients."

Reference:

Maltez F et al. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis - case analysis 2003/2007. Seventeenth international AIDS Conference, Mexico City, abstract MOPDB207, 2008.

Tradução:

GAT - Portuguese Group of Activist Treatments on HIV / AIDS

http://www.agenciaaids.com.br/site/noticia.asp?id=1038
http://www.avozdocidadao.com.br/detailAgendaCidadania.asp?ID=1242